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Immigration Answer Page: AnyIndex

This was inspired by Norman Matloff's immigration forum , where no single man has done more damage to Chinese and other immigrant Americans, and spread more disinformation since the anti-immigration movements of 100 years ago. Most web pages seem to be dedicated to the racist notion that excluding others will benefit your own group, this page is dedicated to the idea that we can all get along, and benefit by uniting through immigration. Lots of anti-immigration people are also anti-affirmative aciton, but I'm against preferences, but for liberalizing immigration.

Contrary to widely printed arguments and unsubstantiated fears, immigration has resulted in net job creation, immigrant engineers are paid more, not less, areas where immigrants work have the highest wages, fields like engineering where immigrants concentrate have the highest starting wages, the highest increase in wages, the highest increase in job growth, and lowest rates of unemployment.

There is no evidence to support the assumption that immigrants displace native minorities, and only the twisted mislogic of Norman Matloff supports the questionable assertion that immigrants, especially the Chinese are culturally incapable of innovation, or that 25% to 40% of the workforce that is immigrant are simply unneccesary, and could easily be replaced by hiring those who are working in other fields (there aren't enough unemployed persons since it's less than 1%).

Matloff says that industry is shooting itself in the foot by hiring people with credentials such as previous experience, advanced or bachelors degrees, and specific skills should have no weight, and that no job listing should have any specific job requirements, instead saying that people like "Cindy", unemployed with no marketable job skills can be productive in "any software technology in 30 days" and be used to replace immigrants trained in object oriented programming, Windows / C++ and SQL database. So he would artificially create an engineering shortage so severe that they would be, in his own words, "forced" to hire those with no degrees, or specific skills.

Skilled Immigration Frequently Asked Questions:

2 JOBS HAVE BEEN CREATED FOR OR BY EACH IMMIGRANT SINCE 1960

Q. How many jobs are lost on average for each immigrant? A. Two jobs on average have been CREATED for each immigrant since the 1970s. 19.7 million jobs were created in the decade from 1983-93 alone, over twice the 8,948,475 immigrants who arrived during 1983-92 Actually since immigration only accounts for 30% population growth, and labor participation is at the highest levels in history, job growth is largely driven by population growth, and high tech jobs generate the most secondary jobs. Only 6% of newly created programming jobs go to people arriving from other countries.

There are no studies that have shown any net job loss that can be correlated with the continuous increase in population due to immigration throughout US history. Even if you discount the effect of a Hispanic housekeeper / nanny who enables a white professional woman to work outside the home, creating two jobs, and the Chinese Charles Wang to comes as a child and founds what was for many years the 1st and is still the 2nd largest software company in the world, creating many more jobs, somehow the economy is creating more jobs than immigrants to fill them. There is no net displacement of jobs, and jobs lost at the low end for blacks such as hotel cleaners and janitors is offset by huge gains in skilled fields such as electrial engineers and airline pilots where blacks have doubled in a decade or more.

IMMIGRANTS BRING BOOM, FALLING POPULATION BRINGS BUST

Q. Don't immigrants destroy the economy by stealing from the fixed number of jobs?

A. The most desirable states and cities are those experiencing a "boom", that is, an increase in jobs and population. Those that are falling, instead of being the most desirable are generally the least desirable since it's people moving away to better situations. When jobs move away from a high cost area like San Jose to a low cost area like Washington state, it is because immigrants have raised wages and land values, not lowered them.

UNEMPLOYMENT HAS FALLEN

Q. How has immigration increased unemployment? A. Since the 1970's, unemployment has DECREASED from the double digits to less than 5 percent, and under 1 percent in engineering. Computer engineers have among the lowest rates of unemployment of any career field. Norman Matloff concedes very low official figures, but counters that "under-employment" is the hidden problem, but uses the example of someone who he admits has no marketable skills, who would be in the same position even if every immigrant were to be deported tomorrow.

IMMIGRANT ENGINEERS ARE PAID MORE, NOT LESS. CITIES WITH MORE IMMIGRANTS HAVE HIGH WAGES.

Q. Don't the newspapers report that Norman Matloff's studies show that immigrant engineers are paid less on average than natives?

A. Norm Matloff (UC Davis) did the only study purporting to prove the immigrants are paid less, using data that has not been duplicated elsewhere that in Silicon Valley, when you compensate for equal education, immigrants are paid less. Most articles report incorrectly, that immigrants are paid less, when in fact, immigrants are paid more overall since they are better educated and qualified than the average native, nationally, or in Santa Clara County. He also cites data from Prof Ong, who is pro-immigrant, but his point is to prove that this is the result of unjust discrimination, and this other study also equalizes for factors which are not equal between the two overall pools, and does not take into account that immigrant salaries eventually equal and exceed natives.

Immigrants are on average MORE educated than natives, and Silicon Valley is one of the highest paid parts of the nation, if not the world. Surveys by the IEEE, the Center for Immigration Studies, and the National Science Foundation all find that immigrants are on average paid MORE than natives. Matloff further confounds logic and reason by claiming that education, experience, and in fact, no credential makes any contribution to productivity, thus defeating the common observation that immigrants are disproportionately represented, get higher SAT scores. Nor can productivity or innovation be measured by the success of companies, since he argues that Yahoo, Microsoft, IBM and Intel and the immigrants that founded or were employed by them who appear regularly in the pages of Business Week and Fortune have made essentially no important innovations, while the nameless Chinese graduate students he sponsored ARE important to high tech.

Ranked by Salary Almost every Asian and European immigrant group is paid higher than natives, even with a a larger proportion of young persons

Note that native blacks are paid within 12% of native white salary even without correcting for job skills, education, or experience

                  Median             Age
                  Income    Index    Under 30 Index
 For    Japanese   $41,456      1.12   59.9%     -1.27
 For    Chinese    $39,691      1.08   52.2%     -1.11
 For    Indian     $39,370      1.07   59.0%     -1.25
 For    NHWhite    $38,827      1.05   44.8%      1.05
 Native Chinese    $38,525      1.04   59.2%     -1.25
 For    Korean     $38,251      1.04   52.6%     -1.11
 For    Cuban      $36,951      1.00   50.5%     -1.07
 Native NHWhite    $36,920      1.00   47.2%      1.00
 Native Japanese   $36,869     -1.00   51.1%     -1.08
 Native Filipino   $35,276     -1.05   51.9%     -1.10
 For    Filipino   $35,070     -1.05   42.2%      1.12
 Native Mexican    $33,839     -1.09   56.2%     -1.19
 For    Other His  $33,440     -1.10   54.3%     -1.15
 For    Black      $33,252     -1.11   52.7%     -1.12
 Native Black      $33,185     -1.11   48.8%     -1.03
 Native Other His  $32,979     -1.12   57.7%     -1.22
 For    Mexican    $21,923     -1.68   58.5%     -1.24

Source: Source: US Census data analysis by "Foreign-Born Scientists,
Engineers and Mathematicians in the United States" Oct 1995 by the
Center for Immigration Studies (Wash DC)


Electrial Engineering Salaries by Immigrant Origin, 1996:
Only Vietnamese, Arabs and Mexicans below whites.

Korean           $71,300
Asian Indian:    $68,800
Chinese:         $68,300
Japanese         $68,900
Whites: 		 $64,700
Hispanic/Mexican $62,500
African American $61,700
Arab or Iranian	 $56,700
Vietnamese       $53,600

1994-95 Engineering Salary Survey
Only Vietnamese were below average

         Immigrants Salaries (groups over 12) mean
                       1994              1995
         United Kingdom            $80,300
         Germany       $70,000
         Taiwan        $66,400     $72,800
         India         $61,600     $69,600
         Hong Kong                 $65,500
         China         $53,000     $64,700
------------------------------------------
         overall       $59,800     $63,700
------------------------------------------
         Vietnam                   $56,700

Source: Sept 30 1996 Electronic Engineering Times Survey, P78-79


Foreign-Born Earn More Than Native Born
Median salaries of US recipients of MS degrees in sci and engineering

Years since  Foreign-	 Native-born
degree		 born
1 to 5       $41,400     $40,300
6 to 10      $48,000     $47,900
11 to 5      $52,000     $50,000
16 to 20     $56,000     $52,000
21 or more   $55,000     $58,200
Source: National Science Foundation







COMPUTER JOBS PAY THE HIGHEST SALARIES

Q. How have skilled immigrants lowered wages for computer engineers? The Center for Immigration Studies claims that wages have been lowered so much by immigrants that native African Americans have been discouraged from the engineering profession.

A. Most surveys the the Census department and placement offices show that computer science students pull in nearly the highest salaries of any undergraduate major. Not only that, salaries of computer engineers have risen faster than most other fields, with the median engineering salary increasing from $42,600 in 1986 to $52,900 in 1995. Since computer science has one of the highest rates of foreign students, it would appear that immigrants RAISE, not LOWER the average entry wage.

Source: EE Times Mar 23, 98 p.129 BSCS Grads see green BSCS 40,417 up 8.6% in one year BSEE 41,192 up 4.2% higher Mgmt info 38,229 Accounting 32,407 BLACKS HAVE MADE EVEN MORE PROGRESS

Q. How have immigrants impacted opportunities for under-represented minorities? A. The study by the Center for Immigration Studies asks this question, and posits that immigrants could be replaced "if only" minorities were graduated and hired in the same proportions as whites. However it fails to note that data in the report answers this question: under-represented minorities have increased dramatically despite high levels of immigration primarily due an increase in qualified graduates. There is no evidence that the labor force is fixed, and that increases in hiring of immigrants has led to reductions in other groups. Nor is any evidence presented that any simple change of policy would lead to instant parity in hiring, or that even if this happened, the economy would not simply hire both groups.

IMMIGRANTS ARE AS ESSENTIAL AS ANY OTHER ETHNIC GROUP

Q. Is the argument that immigrants are essential to high tech and innovation only a myth, and are immigrants harmful when employers refuse to hire better paid and skilled Americans?

A. Yeh Yeh Ling of the Carrying Capacity network ( Carrying Capacity Network Orinda, CA 94563 (510-376-4766)) quoted Norm Matloff's assertion that nearly all essential contributions were made by natives, and that nearly all contributions or corporations where immigrants were either key employees or founders were either nonessential or even harmful. However, in doing so, he selectively dismisses as unimportant founders and key employees of the of Intel, the #1 producer of microprocessors, Yahoo, the #1 internet search site, Sun, the #1 producer of workstations, and Microsoft, the #1 software developer.

He dismisses as unimportant the fact that 25% to 60% of some Silicon Valley companies are made up of immigrants, claiming that they could and should be easily replaced by under and unemployed natives with no marketable skills, comparing them to Indian motel owners. But Indian motels are not a strategic globally competitive industry, and the fact that they are run by a particular group probably indicates that they are doing a more cost-effective job than the groups they displaced. There as many as 100,000 immigrants in high tech, some estimates one in 3. There are 1,500 Asian American-owned tech companies in the Valley, according to a study by investment bankers Hambrecht & Quist and University of California at Berkeley's Annalee Saxenian, the top 30 have a market value of $25 billion.

Logically, one could also conclude that the 80% of engineers who are white men are also disposable and unneccesary since their jobs could be equally filled by an infinite supply of immigrants. Matloff also similarly claims that agriculture would not be negatively affected, even though nearly all field workers are immigrant Hispanics, basically a racist denial of all positive contributions and successful corporations and inventions by nonwhite immigrants as "nonessential".

The Center for Immigration Studies concluded that as a "hypothetical mathematical exercise", that if the US simply graduated and hired African American and Hispanics in the same proportions as whites, they would equal the number of immigrants, but never explained such an exercise would be impossible in reality. Both arguments are based on the highly questionable assumption that high tech would not suffer if 25% to 60% of their workers had never immigrated, that all ethic groups are equally capable (except for immigrant Chinese, who, according to Matloff are LESS capable, despite their over-representation and high math scores, while supporting prefernces for African Americans towards equal representation, despite their low grades and test scores) and that the remaining natives would have done exactly the same as an Andrew Grove or Jerry Yang.

Norman Matloff is also the only educator who makes the unusual claim that immigrants, particularly Asians and Chinese are less capable and productive as a group, despite the fact that the Chinese and Indians have the highest rates of participation in engineering, the most education, the highest math test scores, and the highest representation in student science awards and the best examination high schools. His only evidence of inferiority is representation among ACM awards. But this is a relatively closed professional association, and winners are no more representative of the average professional engineer than rock stars are of the average American. He pays no attention to ultimate measure of success, the revenues and wealth generated by companies like Computer Associates, Microsoft and Intel because, he claims, nearly all innovations are made by natives, dismissing nearly every innovation by immigrants except for An Wang.

The Alexis de Tocqueville Institution took a survey of a random sample of US patents and found that 25% of those who responded to their surveys were immigrants, either as primary or important co-inventors, and 20% of all patents, whether they got a response or not, over double the 9% population of immigrants

IMMIGRANTS ARE JUST AS GOOD OR BETTER THAN NATIVE ENGINEERS

Q. Is it a deception that immigrants are the "best and brightest" when they are hired only because they are cheap? Don't some people say that hiring immigrants is harmful because they are not as innovative?

A. Again, the chief source of the "immigrants are inferior" studies is Norm Matloff. You can believe this only by inventing the fantastic and unbelievable hiring philosiphy that says that no job listing should have any requirements beyond years of experience, that a bachelors, masters, or PhD degree add nothing to productivity, that a person with no marketable skills like "Cindy" on her resume can be "reasonably productive" in any technology such as internet, graphics, CAD, or SQL database in 30 days. By this criterion, someone with a credential list a mile long would be no better than a laid off defence worker with no marketable skills, instead of the current reality where a contractor with "hot" skills routinely finds a new job in 2 to 4 weeks, but "Cindy" languishes after years. Many immigrants hired by Microsoft are hired at the highest levels of management, which is certainly not consistent with the notion that it is soley a money-saving measure. The only motivation for such a scenario is not to help the so-called "under-employed", but to discriminate against immigrant Chinese

Much of Matloff's study is in fact a veiled attack on the Chinese and Chinese culture when he claims that Chinese education forces only rote- memory learning and that they are incapable of innovation. He attacks "network hiring" even though the old boys network of hiring white men is just as established, blacks are lauded for hiring among their own, and industry surveys find that employers find that hiring people already known to employees instead of resumes sent in off the street tend to have the highest success rate

UNEMPLOYABLE LACK MARKETABLE SKILLS, NOT DISPLACED BY IMMIGRANTS.

Q. Aren't there many like "Cindy" who employers would be "forced" to consider if immigrants were not let in?

A. Norman Matloff is the primary proponent of this scenario, but he has never presented any statistical justification for this argument. Immigrants are at most 30% to 40% of the qualified applicant pool, based on current staffing, so eliminating ALL immigrants would only decrease her competitition by 30% to 40%. Since Matloff is not advocating deporting all immigrants, but only slowing or stopping new immigrants, the likely actual change would only amount to 3% to 4% of qualified applicants.

Since the fact that she has been unemployed, and hasn't even gotten an interview for several years despite applying at dozens if not hundreds of jobs, and the chances of hire at a place like Sun or Microsoft for someone with no experience in C++, database, or graphical user interface is very close to 0%, in fact it is highly likely that a slightly less skilled native named "Jack" would get the job even if "Ivan" were kept out of the country. Mattloff creates this topsy-turvy world where those with no marketable skills have an equal chance of selection as those with the skills and degrees in most demand only to support his anti-Asian bias, not to help those with no skills.

According to Business Week, employment in software and services increased by 50% in just 5 years. Any one who was not employed was not left behind because of a lack of jobs, but because they did not meet the reasonable job requirements.

The bottom line that a Mattloff world which forces the labor market to be so short that employers like Microsoft would be given a choice of hiring people who lack any of the minimal job requirements or not hiring at all would cause massive injury to America's leading export industry and wealth creator. Instead of encouraging industry to pick from the best minds in the world, he would force them to give preferences to the underqualified first, those without degrees, training, or marketable skills or experience.

ONLY A TINY MINORITY OF H-1 VISAS ARE HIRED AS CHEAP SUBSTITUTE LABOR

Q. Aren't there "body shops" which hire out foreign workers at very low wages that have resulted in layoffs of American workers? A. Most immigrants do not fall under this controversial category, and most who do are talented workers already identified who it would be difficult or impossible to replace with a native. Many immigrant engineers enter as students or under family preferences. Charles Wang and Andrew Grove arrived as children. Some cases do exist basically as set out, where immigrants are contracted to work at very low wages essentially as substitues for better paid native labor, but this is only a tiny fraction of immigrants in an industry where the average immigrant is actually better educated and better paid than the average native in the industry, and the average immigrant is much more likely to work in high tech than the average native. It is very wrong to characterize the average immigrant worker as someone who was hired strictly as cheap labor, as Norman Matloff claims is the only reason any immigrants get hired at all.

IMMIGRANTS BRING BETTER, NOT WORSE HEALTH

Q. Don't immmigrants bring third world diseases like TB, AIDS, and measles? A. 3rd world diseases like leprosy and tuberculosis and measles just aren't big problems in the US, and are easily controlled. Fewer people realized that for big ticket problems like infant mortality, life expectancy, cancer, and AIDS are much lower or no worse for Hispanics and Asians, even among the poor. Native African Americans have the largest health problems.

CRIME HAS FALLEN

Q. Do immigrants increase crime?

A. Violent and serious crimes have FALLEN in the last 5 years according to the latest FBI statistics. Asians account for much of legal immigration, however despite the existence of highly publicized and notorious smuggling gangs, Asians in fact have the lowest rates of imprisonment and arrest for nearly every category of crime except for gambling. Illegal immigrants account for a disproportionate number of arrests, but since the overall rate is no higher for immigrants in general, legal immigrants have lower rates of crime. Arrest rates for Hispanics are generally lower than the The group with the highest rate of crime, who are the native African Americans.

BLACKS PROGRESS, NOT FALL BACKWARD WITH IMMIGRATION

Q. Do immigrants have a negative impact on native minorities? A. It is truly hypocritical to be against anti-black racism, and then use black interests to attack immigrants. Despite enormous increases in both Hispanic and Asian immigration, Blacks have made tremendous economic and educational progress since 1965 in every professional field from police, firefighting, medicine and engineering. College graduates over age 24 increased from 9% in 1980 to 14% in 1990. Businesses increased 46 percent from 1987 to 1992. Test score gaps declined. Wealth increased 35% from 1983 to 1989. Declines in fields such as hotel cleaning are more of an indication that African Americans are being promoted UP out of poorly paid jobs rather than being forced into unemployment by immigrants. Norman Matloff cites Asian and Hispanic complaints that Oakland favored black contractors as a reason to cut off immigration rather than a reason to investigate why the city favored politically powerful minorities over weaker immigrant groups. The motivation is not to help other minorities (Matloff almost ever directly aids the minorities he claims to speak out for), but to harm Asian immigrants.

It is a truly dangerous game to show that immigrants are statistically undesirable when the group with the poorest statistics by any indice are native African Americans.

IMMIGRANTS DON'T JUST HIRE THEIR OWN

Q. Is it a myth that immigrants create jobs since the Chinese only hire their own kind? A. Another Matloff-ism is that Chinese hire only their own, and that this harms productivity. Strangely, it is seen as positive when black firms hire disproportionate numbers of blacks, but racist when some Chinese-founded firms are majority Chinese. Even if they did hire only Chinese, they are not taking jobs away from natives, and Matloff is entirely incorrect in stating that Everex hired only Chinese. Companies like Wang and Computer Associates created thousands of jobs to persons of all races and nationalities.

Matloff presented an especially ironic case of a friend who as laid off by Everex, a Chinese founded firm, and could not find a job with an "American" owned firm, but had to settle for another firm started by someone from Taiwan who could not afford to pay full health benefits. So here is a case of a man who found not one, but TWO jobs because of an immigrant, yet Matloff continues to say that the Chinese do not create jobs. The only possible motivation is anti-Chinese bias.

THE ENVIRONMENT IS GETTING CLEANER

Q. Don't immigrant increase the population problem and environmental pollution?

A. The fact is that since the 1960's, air and water are cleaner, not dirtier. It matters more how you reduce pollution and how actively you manage the environment than how many people are on the land, since using technology available to the Native Americans overtaxed even entire states with only a handful of people, yet tiny Manhattan Island supports millions sustainably.

THE REAL IMMIGRANT WELFARE RIPOFF IS WORKING IMMIGRANTS PAYING FOR WHITES ON SOCIAL SECURITY, SSI DOESN'T COME CLOSE TO EQUITY

Q. Who is really getting ripped off by welfare?

A. Norman Matloff is behind the idea that Chinese immigrants are committing welfare fraud. But in fact they aren't breaking any rules that can be enforced, which is the normal definition of fraud. He says that sponsors are supposed to sign a pledge that elderly immigrants aren't planning to or be likely to be a "public charge". But this pledge is not a promise, much less an enforceable promise to never use SSI, which is what elderly can get if they didn't live here long enough to work enough years to qualify for Social Security, and only if they fall below income and wealth limits. It is Matloff's position that nearly all elderly immigrants come for a cushy retirement, even though the overall figure is only 25%, and it's not even a majority of Chinese, and that even citizens should be removed from the rolls as well, and he is not at all concerned about the disabled and those who have no affluent children who can keep them off the streets if they lose their nursing home money and Medicare. Since some immigrants can naturalize in as little as 5 years, Matloff also seeks to keep social security and SSI benefits from citizen immigrants as well, claiming to stand for "family values".

See my charts which show that Asians and Hispanics have a population distribution with many young workers, but very few elderly. The biggest welfare program, and the only one that threatens to break the budget is actually Social Security, which economist Lester Thurow of MIT says isn't really an insurance program, but a welfare program where workers today are paying for the currently retired, and any citizen who ever worked for a significant time is eligible for social security. Thus

               Social Security and Public Assistance
Race           Payments Index           ss per
               Total / household        pop    Index
NHWhite           $2,486    1.00 NHWhite   $890   1.00
White             $2,452   -1.00 White     $857  -1.04
total             $2,353   -1.04 total     $757  -1.18
Black             $2,037   -1.20 Black     $435  -2.04
AmInd             $1,899   -1.29 AmInd     $351  -2.54
Hisp              $1,550   -1.58 Hisp      $243  -3.66
AsianPI           $1,477   -1.66 AsianPI   $224  -3.97

From this chart, we see that per-capita, Asians and Hispanics
have the LOWEST rate of public assistance, at only 1/4 the
rate of whites, mostly due to the fact that 

Ratio of working age to retiree age by race
               Worker /
               Retiree Index
Hisp              22.00    2.97
AsianPI           20.09    2.71
AmInd             18.16    2.45
Black             11.57    1.56
total              8.41    1.14
White              7.64    1.03
NHWhite            7.40    1.00

there are 3 times as many workers per retiree for immigrant groups
as whites.

In reality, since Social Security is actually funded by current workers, immigrant elderly who don't normally qualify for SS should be allowed to participate if they are citizens and if their sponsors are paying into social security. See SOCIAL SECURITY: IS THE SKY REALLY FALLING? for the Business Week article that shows that moderate immigration is the key to solvency for Social Security, and elderly whites need working immigrants to fund their retirement more than the other way around.

WHO THE HECK IS NORMAN MATLOFF? AND WHY DOESN'T ANYBODY NOTICE WHAT HE'S REALLY DOING?

Q. What motivates Norman Matloff?

A. Almost every study and thesis by Norman Matloff, particularly affirmative action, immigration, and elderly income benefits is critical of Chinese people and culture, who he has married into and participated in as an outsider volunteer.

Norman Matloff is the true heir to a historical legacy of anti-Chinese hatred and propaganda going back to the "Workingman's Party", which also sought to protect native workers from competition from the Chinese. At every opportunity, he ignores evidence that the Chinese are better paid, better skilled, and overall less likely to use welfare and all federal benefits than natives, and cites persons with very different conclusions than him to support his assertion that immigration, especially that of Chinese should be cut off substantially if not entirely.

The amazing thing is the amount of press given to anti-chinese bias in the Huang case, Colin Powell, and hate e-mail at UC Irvine, but Matloff has never been attacked for anti-Chinese bias by Asian activists, even though only Matloff's efforts have actually resulted in legislation actually harming Chinese. Their most important agenda is to insure prefeferences for African Americans with lower grades and test scores than their own children, where Matloff is judged to be politically correct.

Q. Why do so many magazines and newspapers print Matloff's pieces as if he know what he is talking about?

A. I'm still trying to figure that on out.


Some Feedback


Immigration Spectrum

Percentages Immigrant
33-38% Microsoft 1995 New development employees
30% Generally accepted Silicon Valley
14% IEEE survey

Guide to structure
=>Immigration
 @@issue
   %%subissue

Partial Contents

Immigration Links


Summary of Indexes:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Patents                      2.0  (Alexis de Tocqueville Institution)
CA foreign born prisoners   -1.1  (19.4% vs. 21.7% population 1995)
Noncitizen Prisoners        -1.2  (5% vs. 6% of population)


Immigrants Better
------------------
Life Expectancy
AIDS
Infant Mortality
College Degrees
High tech skills
Legal immigrants in prisons
Patent filing

Immigrants Worse
------------------
TB
Less than 9th grade adult education
Low skill labor
Illegal immigrants in prisons

asian.immigration
=>immigration

@@actor

\clip\96\04\besch.txt bibi besch immigrated from Austria, Bibi Besch
LOS ANGELES (AP) -- Bibi Besch, a television and movie actress whose
credits include the shows ``Northern Exposure'' and ``Dr. Quinn,
Medicine Woman,'' died Sept. 7 of cancer. She was 56.

@@advancement

\priv\96b\01\lessopp.txt Los Angeles Times, June 10, 1996 A Longer
Journey to the Middle Class Immigration: Most newcomers are poor,
undereducated and Latino, and their opportunities are fewer.  By
MYRON LEVIN, Times Staff Writer. Immigrants from 70s are no poorer,
and earlier immigrants are less poor than the native born, newer
immigrants have it tougher.


@@african

"Shedding the 'blame whitey' reflex'" Gregory P. Kane Seattle Times
May 29, 1996 p. B5: Mentions the Economist article, and says blacks
should stop making excuses and compete. F053196

d:\priv\96\19\afriimm.htm 

The Economist May 11, 1996 p. 27 Race in America Black like me

WHY do black immigrants do so much better than blacks who are born in
America? In 1990, the median family income for black Americans was
$21,548, compared with almost $30,000 for African-born blacks and
more still for blacks born in Jamaica. American born black households
had a higher poverty rate, 31.6%, than any black immigrant group
except those from the Dominican Republic. Cubans, Haitians,
Jamaicans, Trinidadians and black Africans all did better. Immigrant
blacks are also less likely to get into trouble with the law. They
are "the most educated ethnic group in America" (Comment, I don't
know, the Indians, Jews and gays are all above 55% 4 yr degrees) It
suggests that racism (ssshhh) might not explain as much as culture an
attitude, and blacks who assimilate into urban black culture tend to
do worse, where those who assimilated into middle-class white culture
tended to succeed.


\priv\96\13\afrimm.htm "African Immigrants Who Aren't Black " by
Tibbett Speer January 1994 American Demographics The African-born
score higher than any other immigrant group in educational attainment
and income. Only half of them are black.  50% are black, 40% white,
10% Asian immigrants from Africa



@@against


%%Asians


[[Ling, Yeh Yeh

Anti-immigration Chinese woman, #2 after Norman Matloff as most
harmful traitor to Chinese

\priv\95\13\massimmg.txt "Mass Immigration hurts America" Seattle
Times Aug 29, 1995 Chinese YEH LING-LING calls for 5 year moratorim on
immigration, cites matloff

z39\clipim\99\12\12\yehling.efx Asian Week Dec 17, 1998
Overpopulation Hurts us all. Too many Chinese take away jobs, tick
off blacks, crowd schools and roads, jack up housing prices. Keep
California nice for the Chinese who are already here.

"New Group Focuses on Immigration Curbs" Asian Week July 2, 1998. New
minority led group. Headed by Yeh Yeh Ling, formerly of the Diversity
Coalition for an Immigration Moratorium. Vietnamese Chinese
immigrant.  "A sustainable level of immigration enriches America, but
a high level exacerbates the problems", 3 of 5 board members are
minorities.

[[Matloff, Norman

See top for Norman Matloff's case that immigration of Asians,
especially high tech enginers, is most harmful to Blacks and other
Asians. He is Jewish, but acts as a member of the Chinese Community.


%%General


"The Immigration Wave: A Plea to Hold it Back" New York Times April
19, 1995 p. B2 review of "Alien Nation: Common Sense About America's
Immigration Disaster" by Peter Brimelow (Random House)

"The new wave, it stands to reason, will drive blacks out of jobs.
The new minorities will alter the nature of the nation state which
has been mostly white with a strong black minority. Whites will no
longer be the majority, blacks no longer the largest minority"

\clip\97\04\borjas.txt KNOW THE FLOW National Review April 17, 1995

ASIANS ARE STEALING AMERICAN INNOVATIONS AND JOBS! DON'T HIRE OR
ADMIT ASIANS!

\clip\97\03\warmean.txt A new Asian bashing book published by the
John Fialka - Dave Chiang BOOK: WAR BY OTHER MEANS Economic Espionage
in America By John J. Fialka Norton - 242 pages - $25


\clip\96\04\immgcon.txt THE CASE AGAINST IMMIGRATION The Moral,
Economic, Social, and Environmental Reasons for Reducing U.S.
Immigration Back to Traditional Levels by Roy Beck 287 pp. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company. $24.  THE IMMIGRATION MYSTIQUE America's
False Conscience. By Chilton Williamson Jr. 202 pp. New York: Basic
Books. $23.  Reviewed by Francis Fukuyama, New York Times Book
Review, Sept 1, 1996, p. 18

\priv\96\04\huddexc.txt Michael Lind The New Republic, April 1, 1996)
Huddled Excesses Says huddled masses need jobs. Charles Lane make a
response in The New Republic 4/8/96 Washington Diarist p. 42 f04096

\doc\96\02\nyimm.txt - David Chiang complains about anti-immigrant
engineer editorial in New York Times 3/19/96 \priv\96\04\nyteng.txt
original text of article says 

\priv\96\04\beckbook.txt Beck book says immigrants take jobs
from blacks, do not take unwanted jobs, but flood the market.

\priv\95\15\spencer.txt - advocate says 65 immigration act was
racially motivated.

"Doing Right by Hong Kong" Economist Sept 30, 1995 p. 18 British Labor
party as been strongly anti-immigrant since the 1960's. Editors
believe that Hong Kong residents should be allowed to move to UK if
China take over doesn't work. Not all will come, since Hong Kong is a
place where things are moving, and many make more than the UK.  3.3
million could potentially come.

\priv\95\13\massimmg.txt "Mass Immigration hurts America" Seattle
Times Aug 29, 1995 Chinese YEH LING-LING calls for 5 year moratorim on
immigration, cites Matloff

"The Immigration Wave: A Plea to Hold it Back" New York Times April
19, 1995 p. B2 review of "Alien Nation: Common Sense About America's
Immigration Disaster" by Peter Brimelow (Random House)

"The new wave, it stands to reason, will drive blacks out of jobs.
The new minorities will alter the nature of the nation state which
has been mostly white with a strong black minority. Whites will no
longer be the majority, blacks no longer the largest minority"

\priv\95\13\sowell95.txt -  ADDING A DOSE OF CANDOR TO IMMIGRATION
DISCUSSION by Thomas Sowell Seattle Times May 17, 1995 Review
of Brimelow book, largely supportive
- high rates of 3rd world disease
- high rates of elderly welfare and southeast Asian welfare
- russian and nigerian crime syndicates

\priv\95\13\sowell95.txt
MUSH, BUZZWORDS COLOR DEBATE OVER IMMIGRATION Seattle Times April 26,
1995 p. B5     Less than 5 percent of the immigrants from Britain or
Germany go on welfare when they get here, but more than one fourth the
immigrants from Vietnam go on welfare, as do nearly half of those from
Cambodia. That compares to 14 percent among American blacks.


@@age

\doc\95\07\closdoor.txt "Don't Close Our 'Golden Door'" John Miller,
Center for Equal Opportunity, Wash DC, Wall Street Journal May 25,
1995. Median age immigrants: 28 all us: 33 95% arrive before
retirement age vs. 13% of US senior citizens. 80% arrive before 45,
vs, 68% of general population


@@amnesty

z39\clip\2000\02\labor.txt Labor Urges Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants
By STEVEN GREENHOUSE NEW ORLEANS, Feb. 16 -- Adopting a sharp change
in policy, the American labor movement today called for blanket
amnesty for illegal immigrants and an end to most sanctions against
employers who hire them.

\priv\96b\08\nodeport.txt INS concluded immigrant was so assimilated,
deportation would constitute hardship.


@@apprehension 
  
  \doc\95\06\illapp.txt  The Border Patrol apprehended more than 
  1 million in FY 94, but the same people are counted multiple times
  and many come to work or visit, and return.


@@assimilating


\priv\95\16\laimmas.txt LA Timese piece says immigrants assimilate a
lot in 10 years.  Los Angeles Times, 11/03/95 IMMIGRATION: A new study
challenges the generally unfavorable assumptions about Southern
California immigrants. By PATRICK J. McDONNELL, Times Staff Writer


AMERICA SHOULD ENCOURAGE ASSIMILATION INTO A COMMON IDENTITY AGAIN
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-02/09/078L-020997-idx.html
\clip\97\04\assimil.txt FROM MANY, ONE NATION America Must Again
Assimilate Its Immigrants The Washington Post, Sunday, February 9
1997 By Peter D. Salins

also see \clip\97\09\mignews.txt for review

\CLIP\96\02\USCULT.TXT AP 11-Aug-1996 13:09 EDT REF5245 U.S. Culture
A Struggle For Immigrants By DONNA ABU-NASR Associated Press Writer
WASHINGTON (AP) -- After living in the United States for 14 years,
Mahdiyyah Yousef decided she'd had enough. Last year, she packed her
bags and took her five daughters and two sons back home to the
impoverished Gaza Strip. 

\clip\96\01\mignews.txt August 1996 Migration News The US Dept of
Labor surveyed the IRCA amnesty immigrants, found that 25% do not
speak much english after 10 years, althout lab force participation is
high, relatively few of the legalized aliens were able to move beyond
the restaurant and construction jobs they held as illegal aliens.

\priv\95\16\laimmas.txt LA Timese piece says immigrants assimilate a
lot in 10 years.  Los Angeles Times, 11/03/95 IMMIGRATION: A new study
challenges the generally unfavorable assumptions about Southern
California immigrants. By PATRICK J. McDONNELL, Times Staff Writer


@@automatic citizenship

>>d:\priv\95\19\autociti.txt AP 13 Dec 95 Automatic Citizenship
Assailed Children of illegal immigrants should not be citizens.


@@Awards

Fortune Magazine March 2, 1998
America's Most Admired Companies
* High percentage of immigrant innovators
1. General Electric *
2. Microsoft *
3. Coca Cola
4. Intel *
5. Hewlett Packard *
6. Southwest Airlines
7. Berkshire and Hathaway
8. Disney
9. Johnson & Johnson
10. Merck *

PC Magazine July 1997
The PC Magazine 100 - companies behind the "perfect PC" that make the
computer what it is and what it ought to be. 
#1 Microsoft (lead architect and 40% of hires immigrants)
#2 Intel Corporation (CEO and 30% of hires immigrants)
#3 IBM Corporation (depends on immigrants in labs)
#4 Netscape Communications Corp (immigrants on staff)
#5 Sun Microsystems (founded, staffed by immigrants)

Business Week jan 13, 1997 p. 57 Andrew Grove of Intel, Bill Gates of
Microsoft (hires 30-40% immigrants among new engineers) , John
Chambers of Cisco (veteran of immigrant founded Wang Labs), Michael
Dell (Matloff says that no person is important enough to justify
immigration, if Dell were an immigrant, would not pass his muster)
named among top 25 managers of 1996.  21 are US managers, parity for
immigrants would be 2 of 20. Also Phil Condit of Boeing, William
Esrey of Sprint, Lou Gerstner IBM, Christina Gold Avon, Hiroshi Okuda Toyta,
Sandy Warner JP Morgan Jack Welch GE Al Zeien Gillette.



@@asylum


@@asylum

\priv\95\20\asyclaim.txt - Work permits only issued if asylum granted or
not resolved in 180 days

\priv\95\18\mexasyl.txt - More mexico asylum cases
The INS granted 54 applications for political asylum from Mexican citizens
out of 9,304 received in fiscal year 1995, which ended Oct. 1. That was up
from the nine granted out of 9,323 requests the previous year. 


\doc\95\13\frcasy.txt The Family Research Council notes that while
the Clinton administration no longers considers fleeing from forced
abortion to be a valid reason for asylum, they will grant it to
homosexuals fleeing persecution.


\doc\96\03\fgmasy.txt U.S. Frees African Fleeing Ritual Mutilation
By Celia W. Dugger

\priv\95\20\asyclaim.txt - Work permits only issued if asylum granted or
not resolved in 180 days

\priv\95\18\mexasyl.txt - More mexico asylum cases
The INS granted 54 applications for political asylum from Mexican citizens
out of 9,304 received in fiscal year 1995, which ended Oct. 1. That was up
from the nine granted out of 9,323 requests the previous year. 

\doc\95\13\frcasy.txt The Family Research Council notes that while
the Clinton administration no longers considers fleeing from forced
abortion to be a valid reason for asylum, they will grant it to
homosexuals fleeing persecution.


@@australia

%%general
\clip\97\29\auunhap.txt "Ethnic underclass" evolving in Australia:
study " on arrival, 46.2 percent believed their lifestyle was worse,
while 42.9 percent felt they were better off."

AUSTRALIA REQUIRES SKILLED IMM TO HAVE $40,000 TO AVOID WELFARE IF
JOBLESS \clip\97\20\austskill.txt Now migrants need $40,000 Sydney
Morning Herald, Monday, September 15, 1997

\clip\97\13\austdown.txt Australia To Cut Immigration Intake By 8.1%
In FY97-98 AP-Dow Jones News Service, May 21, 1997

\clip\97\04\austasia.txt Many Australians Ponder Nation's Drift to
the Orient The New York Times, February 7, 1997 Asians make up less
than 5 percent of Australia's population of 18 million, they account
for 40 percent of its current immigrants, many Asians say they have
been verbally assaulted.


%%Hanson, Pauline

Charismatic leader of anti-immigrant (mostly anti-Asian) movement in
Australia. She was #1 vote getter but lost due to "preference" rules
in voting. This lady is really, really dangerous. In the US she might
be compared to David Duke but no one here has that kind of drawing
power.

PAULINE HANSON LOSES WITH #1 VOTES TO OTHER 2 PARTIES IN 1998 \doc\web\98\08\hanson.txt In Blair,
Pauline Hanson received (rounded out figures) 22,000 votes, the Labor
candidate 14,000, and the Liberal candidate 12,000 votes. Believe it
or not, the Liberal candidate 'won' the seat. Mrs Hanson, the clearly
preferred choice of the voters of Blair, 'lost' simply because
Australia's compulsory preferential system of voting has been
corrupted by the collusion of the main parties. 

IF AUSTRALIA'S HANSON IS ANTI-ASIAN RACIST, WHAT IS AMERICA'S NORM
MATLOFF?  \clip\97\15\austrace.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/ausi_061197.html
Wednesday, June 11, 1997 Australia's race debate is sending a ripple
through Asia by Jason Szep Reuters few Asian officials and ordinary
citizens expect Australia's backlash against Asian immigration - led
by politician Pauline Hanson - to affect trade ties.

ANTI-ASIAN AUSTRALIAN PELTED BY FRUIT \clip\97\12\hanson.txt
05/05/1997 10:11 EST Anti-Asian Lawmaker Attacks Gov't.  By VIJAY
JOSHI Associated Press Writer SYDNEY, Australia (AP) -- A right-wing
politician campaigning to keep out Asian migrants accused the
government Monday of inciting weekend attacks by angry demonstrators
who pelted her with fruit.

NEW ZEALANDERS MORE LIKELY THAN ASIAN IMMIGRANTS IN AUSTRALIA TO END
UP SICK OR IN JAIL
http://www.csmonitor.com/plweb-cgi/idoc.pl?149194+unix+_free_user_+www.csmonitor.com..80+paper+paper+archives+archives++asian
\clip\97\06\austasia.txt INTERNATIONAL, Page 7 Some Fallacies About
Asian Immigrants in Australia Eileen McBride, Special to The
Christian Science Monitor SYDNEY 2/20/1997 Although some Australians
have tried to suggest otherwise, Asian immigrants do not contribute
to the disintegration of Australian "values," says the country's top
immigration official.

\clip\96\08\austasia.txt AP 5-Nov-1996 Copyright 1996. The Associated
Press. All Rights Reserved.  Australia Debates Asian Immigration By
PETER JAMES SPIELMANN Associated Press Writer Animosity against
Australia's non-whites, including its 303,000 aboriginal people, has
become increasingly vocal. ..She called for a national army to defend
Australia from an Asian invasion.  "I believe we are in danger of
being swamped by Asians," she said

\priv\96b\03\austral.txt CANBERRA, Australia, June 18 (Reuter) -
Australians think their country is accepting too many migrants and in
particular too many from Asia, according to a newspaper poll
published Wednesday. Fifty-one percent of those surveyed thought too
many immigrants came from particular regions -- 88 percent of those
said there were too many Asians.



@@benefit


\priv\95\20\immisacr.txt IMMIGRANTS CHANGE THE FACE OF SACRAMENTO
Scripps-McClatchy Western Service 12-26-95 They revive dying crime
ridden neighborhoods

\doc\95\14\econlabr.txt - Immigrants free women to work, give men
free time from gardening, lower the cost of garments.

\priv\95\13\immgrow.txt Business Week, October 9, 1995 By Michael J.
Mandel HOW  IMMIGRATION CAPS  CHOKE  OFF  GROWTH

\priv\95\12\whammove.txt Where Americans Are Moving Fortune Aug 21,
1995 p. 32 - Most population growth is driven by interstate, not
foreign migration, and cities with the highest growth rates are also
the most prosperous with  most job growth. Place with people leaving
tend to be in decline


\clip\97\08\njimm.txt
N.J. Immigrants' Diversity and Education Tied to Public Backing
The New York Times , March 19, 1997
By CELIA W. DUGGER

New Jersey Immigrants are better off than nationally

- estimated that a native-born household pays on average $250 a year
more in state and local taxes because of the 1 million immigrants who
live in New Jersey.
- 70% of Asian immigrants vs. 50% nationally attended college
- 55% of Latin Am immigrants complete high school vs. 40% nat.
- estimates illegal costs as $153 million vs. $130 in taxes paid
  by illegal immigrants.
-Kristin F. Butcher, an assistant professor of economics at Boston
 College, and Anne M. Piehl, an assistant professor of public policy
 at Harvard University, reviewed the economic data and found that
 immigrants had not damaged the wages or employment of U.S.-born
 workers
- high school dropouts may have benefited, not lost jobs and
  wages to immigrants
  because they helped expand industries. 
- immigrants receive somewhat more in benefits than they pay in
taxes. That is largely because immigrant households earn slightly
less than native-born people and have more children.

Press release found at:
http://www.urban.org/news/pressrel/pr970319.htm
\clip\97\09\newjersey\newjersey.htm 

\clip\96\08\siliboom.txt AP 29-Oct-1996 13:08 EST REF5451 Copyright
1996. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.  Silicon Valley Has
Housing Boom By CATALINA ORTIZ AP Business Writer SAN JOSE, Calif.
(AP) -- Robert Andrews did well for himself when Netscape
Communication Corp. went public, and put some of his windfall into a
$300,000 weekend house. (immigants contribute to wealth in silicon
valley)

\priv\96b\07\bcchin.txt Date: Tue, 9 Jul 1996 01:48:03 -0400 Asian
Immigrants Flock to British Columbia By Aviva Freudmann, The Journal
of Commerce Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News. Chinese immigrants
have fueled an economic boom, and escaped stagnation that afflicted
the rest of Canada.

\priv\96b\06\immretu.txt June 10, 1996 IMMIGRANTS RETURN MORE THAN
THEIR SHARE: New Tomas Rivera Center Study Highlights Immigrant
Lifetime Contributions to California

\priv\95\20\immisacr.txt IMMIGRANTS CHANGE THE FACE OF SACRAMENTO
Scripps-McClatchy Western Service 12-26-95 They revive dying crime
ridden neighborhoods

\doc\95\14\econlabr.txt - Immigrants free women to work, give men
free time from gardening, lower the cost of garments.

\priv\95\13\immgrow.txt Business Week, October 9, 1995 By Michael J.
Mandel HOW  IMMIGRATION CAPS  CHOKE  OFF  GROWTH

\priv\95\12\whammove.txt Where Americans Are Moving Fortune Aug 21,
1995 p. 32 - Most population growth is driven by interstate, not
foreign migration, and cities with the highest growth rates are also
the most prosperous with  most job growth. Place with people leaving
tend to be in decline



@@better

Norman Matloff is the only proponent of the idea that immigrants are
disproportionately UNDER represented among the most talented and
innovative. Here is contrary evidence.

\clip\98\12\saesum.htm
MIGRATION OF FOREIGN
SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS TO THE UNITED STATES WORKSHOP SUMMARY
Prepared by Parvina Rebbi and Robert Lucas On May 21, 1997, a
workshop on the migration of foreign scientists and engineers to the
United States was sponsored by the Sloan Foundation and held at the
Institute for Economic Development, Boston University.  The workshop
was conducted in four main panels: The first panel addressed the role
of foreign science and engineering students at American universities.
Panelists: Thomas Espenshade, Michael Finn, Norman Matloff 

FOREIGN GRAD STUDENTS GRAD IN LESS TIME AND HIGHER RATE
For all graduate students receiving degrees, the time required for
completion of the Ph.D. program was seven years, as compared to 6.1
years for temporary residents and 7.2 years for permanent residents.
Both the greater completion rate and the shorter time to completion
for foreign temporary residents are statistically significant. 

In the physical science and engineering disciplines, approximately 42
percent of foreign students who graduated after 1980 were employed in
the United States in 1992.  estimated rates of stay for Indian and
Chinese graduate students were very high

according to Matloff. He claimed that few foreign students are
exceptionally talented and that the majority of foreign and native
graduate students are of ordinary talent. As a result, entry of
foreign students in American graduate programs leads to an excess of
computer scientists in the software labor market. 

STEPHAN: CONTRIBUTIONS OF IMMIGRANTS IS DISPROPORTIONATE IN HIGH TECH
Paula Stephan ..including: the 250 most cited authors, authors of
"Hot Papers" and "Citation Classics" as determined by ISI, members of
the National Academies of Science and Engineering, authors of highly
cited patents in medical devices and diagnostics, scientists who have
played a key role in launching biotechnology firms and winners of
research and development innovator awards. The results of the study
indicate that a disproportionate number of foreign born scientists
and engineers have contributed to industrial research and development
in the United States. Moreover this pattern holds in the life
sciences, physical sciences and engineering fields.  10 See Paula
Stephan and Sharon Levin, "The Birth Origin and Educational
Background of Scientists and Engineers Making Exceptional
Contributions to U.S. Science and Engineering", final report to the
Sloan Foundation, 1995. 


NICHOLS ASKS STEPHAN ABOUT IMMIGRANT ACHIEVEMENT
\doc\web\98\06\stephan.txt


@@biographies of notable immigrants and companies


%%Abraham, Senator Spencer of Michigan

WWW Home Page http://www.senate.gov/~abraham/
New conservative Republican champion of the positive effects of 
immigration.

Immigration Review Fall/winter 1996/97 "Senator Spencer Abraham"
Elected to Senate in 1994 Promised to defend the interests of Cypress
and other high-tech companies.

\clip\97\17\abraham.txt WASHINGTON -- Republican Relishes Role as
Champion Of Legal Immigration He's out to change the GOP's image San
Francisco Chronicle, Tuesday, July 8, 1997 Louis Freedberg, Chronicle
Washington Bureau

\clip\97\09\abraham.txt Senators use rank to set pet priorities
Achievements of immigrants get hearing from Chairman Abraham Detroit
News, March 23, 1997 By Lisa Zagaroli Detroit News Washington Bureau
WASHINGTON -When Sen.  Spencer Abraham leads the next debate on
immigration in Congress, he won't focus on the usual images of
illegal border crossings, welfare fraud and drug trafficking.

\clip\97\08\abraham.txt A doctor takes aim at Abraham Anger over
senator's pro-immigrant stance spurs possible campaign The Detroit
Free Press, March 14, 1997 BY LORI MONTGOMERY Free Press Washington
Staff [Dr. John Tanton leads FAIR against immigration, targets
Senator U.S.  Sen. Spencer Abraham, Michigan's popular Republican
freshman who leads support of immigration]

%%Brodsky Jascha - Violinist

\clip\97\07\brodsky.txt New York Times March 6, 1997 Jascha Brodsky,
90, Violinist at Curtis Institute

%%Chen 

\clip\97\08\chen.txt Dr. Shiuh Yung James Chen develops software to
convert 2D x-rays into 3 dimensional data AP 16-Mar-1997 DENVER (AP)
-- A computer software program that converts two-dimensional X-rays
of the heart's arteries into three-dimensional graphics has been
developed by a computer scientist and an University of Colorado heart
surgeon. (Norman Matloff says it's nothing special)


%%Cypress

From Migration News Feb 1997 Sen. Abraham on January 15, 1997 visited
California's Silicon Valley and promised to resist limits on legal
immigration.  According to his host, Cypress Semiconductor Corp.,
about 40 percent of the research and development jobs at Cypress are
held by immigrants and each R&D job creates nine additional jobs.
(Norman Matloff says the CEO of Cypress knows nothing about hiring)

%%FAIR

c:\clip\97\08\abraham.txt
A doctor takes aim at Abraham Anger over senator's pro-immigrant
stance spurs possible campaign The Detroit Free Press, March 14, 1997

[Dr. John Tanton leads FAIR against immigration, targets Senator U.S.
Sen. Spencer Abraham, Michigan's popular Republican freshman who
leads support of immigration]

"But Tanton, in his characteristically blunt manner, likens the flood
of humanity to bacteria. "In the bacteriology lab, we have culture
plates," he said. "You put a bug in there and it starts growing and
gets bigger and bigger and bigger. And it grows until it finally
fills the whole plate. And it crashes and dies.  "That's the big
picture," he said. "If you don't buy that, then there's nothing we
can talk about." 

(At least Mr Tanton doesn't make thinly veiled anti-Chinese statments
defaming the contributions and abilities of the Chinese Americans
like the less well-known Norman Matloff who is more frequently cited)

%%General

said Alice Yardum-Hunter, an immigration attorney and one of the
contest organizers.  "All too often we forget that people like Bob
Hope, Elizabeth Arden, Albert Einstein, Alexander Graham Bell, and
E.I. du Pont were all immigrants to the United States."
\clip\97\13\immessay.txt 2 Honored for Essays on Importance of
Immigrants Los Angeles Times, Tuesday, May 20, 1997

%%High Tech Labor

The other side of Asians in Silicon Valley - Vietnamese and Filipino
assemblers

\clip\97\09\silivall\silivall.txt
http://www.amagazine.com/at.live/amagazine/magazine95.10/silicon/silicon.html
A Magazine October 1995

     DOWN AND OUT IN SILICON VALLEY page 30... After years of
diminished expectations, the world's foremost high-tech center has
made a comeback. So why are Filipino and Vietnamese workers--once the
backbone of the Valley's cyber-economy--still out of a job? By Eric
Lai 

%%Ho DAVID HO FROM TAIWAN IS TIME MAN OF THE YEAR
FOR AIDS RESEARCH


David Ho \clip\97\07\hoyear.txt The Tao of Ho: His Tenacity and
Legendary Tranquility both Spring From the Immigrant Experience By
Howard Chua-Eoan Time DECEMBER 30, 1996/JANUARY 6, 1997 VOL. 148 NO.
29 (AIDS researcher, Taiwan immigrant Chinese)

%%Hsu
\clip\97\03\gracie.txt Gracie Hsu's parent from Taiwan

CHINESE IMMIGRANT FOUNDED KINGSTON MEMORY GIVES $75K BONUS CHECK TO
EMPLOYEES

%%Intel

Andrew Grove - CEO of Intel, #1 Microprocessor manufacturer in the
world, heart of most PC's. Norman Matloff says that Intel is harmful
to high tech, and has made no significant contributions.

"Intel to add 3,000 jobs" Santa Clara expansion is one of the largest
in the 1990s in Silicon Valley. San Jose March 22, 1997. This is a
50% increase over the current county workforce of 6,000. Intel
controls 85% of the world microprocessor market, and is the largest
chip manufacturer in the world.

%%Kingston

"Playing Santa: Two Silicon Valley entrepeneurs share the wealth"
F010697-2 Bert Eljera Asian Week Dec 27, 1996 p. 9 Company founded by
Chinese immigrants in 1987. Sun and Tu made the Forbes list of 400
wealthiest Americans, finished 1995 with 1.3 billion in sales with an
annual increase of 60%.

David Sun, John Tu \clip\96\12\kingston.txt AP 16-Dec-1996 Calif
Company Gives $75K Bonuses Kingston is the world's largest maker of
computer memory products.  founded by Chinese immigrants David Sun
and John Tu

%%Khan, Phillipe

Phillipe Khan - Founder of Borland, Turbo Pascal was first compiler
for the masses. Khan was an illegal immigrant.

\clip\96\08\indsucc.txt Indian inventor

%%Microsoft


"Senate mulls lifting lid on engineering visas" ee times mar 2, 1998 p.
16 republicans and some demos will support raising the h-1b cp from
65,000 per year Michael Murray vp human resources said tha microsoft
hired 1707 last year, only 3 per campus if cap expires in june , as
many as 80 foreign engineers might not be hired


30% - 40% of new microsoft
technical people are immimgrants, entering at very high levels of
experience and skills.

%%Migdal, Alexander


EX-SOVIET SCIENTIST ANOTHER IMMIGRANT WHO CREATES JOBS AND INNOVATES

"Ex-Soviet Scientist Reshapes 3D for PCs" Wall Street Journal April
30, 1997 p. B1. Alexander "Sahsa" Migdal founded a company which was
bought by MetaTools of Carpenteria California, and created a
technology which may allow PC's to perform many 3D feats that could
only be done by much more expensive workstations.

%%Pei, I.M.
I.M. Pei Famous Architect

Liu Shih-shun, Chinese diplomat to Canada, ambassador to
Mexico. 32 descendents earned 22 college degrees
\clip\96\02\liushih.txt 7 Aug 1996 NewsHound@sjmercury.com

%%Wang, An  (Wang Computer Company) 

Invented core memory, pioneer in desktop, word processing and
mini-computers. The only famous Chinese immigrant that Norman Matloff
says has made important technical contributions

%%Wang, Charles (Computer Associates) 

CEO of 2nd largest software company
in world by the 1990s (was the largest before Microsoft grew bigger)
, Shanghai born. Norman Matloff says that he is not even an immigrant.

%%Wu

\clip\97\04\chienwu.txt Physicist Chien-Shiung Wu Dies Woman
physicist from China, helped build A bomb, disproved symmetry

%%Yang

Jerry Yang Co-Founder of Yahoo, leading and first well-known internet
search engine 

http://www.citivu.com/dvorak/95awds.html \clip\97\08\dvorak.txt
Winners for the 1995 Dvorak PC Telecommunications Excellence Awards
Best Online Topical Index : " Jerry Yang and David Filo started Yahoo
in April, 1994 as Pre-Doctoral students in Electrical Engineering at
Stanford University. Their idea was to keep track of interesting
sites, for their own personal use.  "

http://www.businessweek.com/1996/07/b346299.htm
2/12/96 Business Week "What Hath Yahoo Wrought?" "The company to beat
remains Yahoo--the first to market and backed by roughly $6 million
in venture capital. It's already turning profits from selling spots
on its pages to more than 50 advertisers, and it boasts one of the
strongest brand names in cyberspace. It started out in April, 1994,
after its founders, Jerry Yang and David Filo, recognized the growing
popularity of their informal listings of Web sites"


http://www.iworld.com/corporate/releases/96.02.21-yang.html February
Web Developer Conference Keynoted by Yang of Yahoo Feb 21, 1996,
Westport, CT--Mecklermedia Corporation (Nasdaq: MECK), the leading
source for information about the Internet, concluded Web Developer
'96 in Chicago "The Internet is no longer just a business place
environment or a place for academics and university students, it is a
consumer medium," said Jerry Yang, Chief Yahoo of Yahoo Inc., who
keynoted the technically oriented program., calling for the continued
commitment by Webmasters and corporations to the growth of the
Internet. 

\clip\97\08\upstart.txt upSTART Feature Article November 11, 1995
Volume 01 Issue 01 Premiere Issue: Featuring An Interview with Yahoo!
Co-Founder Jerry Yang. 


\clip\96\01\jyang.html http://www.kpix.com/apah/JYang.html Jerry Yang
biography on KPIX page Norman Matloff says the Jerry would NOT
qualify as talent extraordinary enough to allow as in immigrant.

\clip\96\01\yahofoun.txt Yahoo co-founder was Jerry Yang, 26 of
Stanford.


 

@@Birth citizenship

The 14th amendment which grants equal rights to blacks also stated "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." Some people want to change this. \priv\95\14\hkbirt.txt - Chinese mothers try to sneak into Hong Kong in hopes of citizenship for babies. 14TH AMENDMENT WAS NOT INTENDED FOR CHILDREN OF ILLEGAL ALIENS \clip\98\08\ark.txt On Citizenship Asian Week April 2, 1998 p. 5 Saw Lim-Skain San Francisco Ca "Sen. Jacob Howard, who drafte the citizenship language made it clear: "This will not, of course, include persons born in the United States who are foreigners, alieans, who belong to the families of ambassadors or foreign ministers.." (congressional record May 30, 1866)." CHINESE CASE ESTABLISHED BIRTH CITIZENSHIP Our Birthright Emil Guillermo Asian Week 3/26/98 Wong Kim Ark was one of the first am born Chinese in 1873. He was not allowed to return under the Chinese Exclusion act. March 28, 1898 the Supreme court ruled that the 14th amendnent says that all who are born or naturalized are citizens, even the Chinese \priv\95\19\autociti.txt AP 13 Dec 95 Automatic Citizenship Assailed [Children of illegal immigrants should not be citizens] \clip\96\05\birtcitz.txt From: RAOULLC@aol.com Subject: Column for 23 September 20 September 1996 To: OP/Ed Editor. Says that the 14th amendment recognizes that all who are born are citizens whether their parents are here legallly or not. \clip\96\02\immbirt.txt The New York Times, August 6, 1996 The Republicans Platform Unit Acts on Illegal Immigrants' Children By DAVID E. ROSENBAUM. They propose eliminating automatic citizenship for children of illegal immigrants. \clip\96\02\repplat.txt The New York Times, August 7, 1996 GOP Panel Backs Change in Constitution on Citizenship By ROBERT PEAR \clip\96\02\birtcont.txt Another assault on immigration. BIRTH CONTROL By Stephen Chapman New Republic April 8, 1996. There is no evidence immigrants come mainly to give their children citizenship. Most illegals won't be deported, children or not. 70 percent of births in LA County public hospitals are to illegal women. One study found 15% of new mothers in border area hospitals crossed the border to give birth, 1/4 (4%) did so to give citizenship, but most for a different reason. Out of 1.7 million undocumented, only 100,000 births. Argues to keep 14th amendment protection to all those born and naturalized in the US. \priv\95\14\hkbirt.txt - Chinese mothers try to sneak into Hong Kong in hopes of citizenship for babies.
@@blacks, harmful to Immigration critics say that immigrants have lead to black decline, but almost every statistic has been improving for blacks, not declining. Pessimism is just another excuse for racism when one group blames another. \clip\98\11\midlat.txt http://www.mercurycenter.com:80/premium/front/docs/impact17.htm August 17, 1998, in the San Jose Mercury News Middle America grapples with an influx of Latinos BY BEN STOCKING AND EDWIN GARCIA Mercury News Staff Writers `They need to go back to where they came from,'' ``They're getting all the jobs, and you can't find houses to rent because they're getting those, too.'' Urban Labor Markets: Immigants vs. African Americans Dr. Frank L. Morris review of Still the Promised City? by roger Waldinger Immigration Review Fall/Winter 1996-97 \images\972\112097\p08.tif "African Americans should have a competitive advantage over most immigrants because of Black's generally higher educational attainment and better english skills" [but they lack ethnic niches - established markets to whites, such as restaurants, sweatshops or migrant labor that less educated Latinos and Asians work in, have opportunity to use welfare not open to other immigrants.] Finds NY Fire dept still close to blacks [but much, much more open than to immigrants, blacks are at or over parity in most CA fire depts, Hispanics and Asians far below] can enter with a labor market advantage over AA because they can benefit immediately from the already-establed immigrant occupational niches [which begs the question why blacks don't have such niches - they used to but nearly all such niches are today considered to be "beneath" their dignity] ILLEGAL WORKERS DISPLACE POOR BLACKS? \clip\97\25\illwork.txt San Diego Union-Tribune, Sunday, November 2, 1997 JOBS MAGNET. First of three parts. The border fences are stronger and the number of guards has grown. Yet undocumented immigrants continue to find their way into the United States. They come for jobs. And they're getting them. ------------------------------------------------------------------- MINORITY ENGINEERS HARMED BY IMMIGRATION? UP 6.5% IN 95-96 Comment - The Center for Immigration Studies and Norm Matloff says that immigrant Asians harm blacks, but all of the minorities increased in engineering. There is room for everybody. ref: \doc\web\97\02\MINENG.TXT image: \clip\97\03\mingrad.gif "Minority engineering grads hit record" Electrial Engineering Times Jan 27, 1997 p. 88. National Action Council For Minorities in Engineering data: Engineering Degrees 1995-96 Increas Num Group 7.7% 3,120 African-Am 14.3% 263 Native American 4.9% 2,942 Latino ------------------------------------------------------ IMMIGRATION IMPACT SAYS IMMIGRATION TIED TO BLACK DECLINES, BUT MOST BLACK STATISTICS HAVE BEEN IMPROVING \doc\97\01\immpact.txt Immigration Impact: Documenting the Effects of Immigration on African Americans July-August 1996 Vol 1 No. 2 P.O. Box 16360 Alexandria VA 22302 F010597-1 During tight labor low-immigration era of 1940 to 1970, the black middle class few from 22 to 71 percent. By 1970, the "march towards equality" stalled and the black middle class had started to shrink. "The connections between high immigration and setbacks for black Americans are far too numerous and detailed to be dismissed as a mere coincidence" Historic Betrayal by Boy Bell, exerpt from "The Case Against Immigration" Arthur Hu comment - problem is, nearly every statistic for blacks has been improving, whether it is standard of living, education, or representation in desirable professional jobs, often doubling per decade. Blacks test scores are up, and high school graduation rates have reached parity with whites. \priv\96b\08\minbusup.txt 8/7/96 The Atlanta Journal and Constitution Business Report: Small Business By Hank Ezell, The Atlanta Journal and Constitution If Asian business is up by 112 percent, and immigrants harm blacks, why are black businesses up by 80% too? \priv\96\13\newsouth.txt The Newest Southerners by Judith Waldrop October 1993 American Demographics http://www.marketingtools.com The idea that immigrants take jobs away from native blacks has been largely disproved, says Thomas Espenshade, a sociologist with Princeton University. In his studies of Los Angeles and 51 other metropolitan areas, Espenshade found that immigrants had no effect on black employment or earnings. Even after the Mariel Boat Lift brought 125,000 Cubans into Miami, researchers found no adverse economic impact on the black community. \doc\96\03\moreeng.txt DC. based-Center for Immigration studies claims Asians displace minority engineers, but black engineers increased by 66%, and black math and computer scientists increased by 85% despite 90% and 237% growth in Asians driven largely by immigration. 1980-1990 change in % (+ 100 for ratio) engineers T23.7 W15.6 B65.9 A89.5 H70.2 math/comp sci T38.8 W21.5 B85.4 A237 H133 \doc\96\03\blakjan.txt "Evauating Costs, Benefits of Immigration" San Francisco Chronicle June 23, 1993 p. A6 San Francisco Chronicle - Black Janitors used to dominate large buildings at $9 an hour, but were replaced by Hispanic contractors hiring at minimum wage with no benefits. Most of the 2,000 blacks were displaced and have not returned to the industry. d:\priv\96\04\11wald.htm - NY Times argues blacks need training, and employers need to hire them, not restrict immigrants. also immwal2.txt comment >>\doc\96\01\econmigr.txt "The economics of immigration" San Francisco Examiner June 13, 1993. Black janitors are down due to immigration, but blacks increase in almost every desirable field, so this is not neccesarily bad. \doc\95\15\econblak.txt Alien Nation, Peter Brimelow p. 173 "Economic Consequences for Blacks". Immigrants replaced and retarded progress of blacks, links rise in problems to 1965 immigration change \priv\95\15\immbackl.txt A Business Week/Harris Poll in 1992 found that while 59% of those surveyed thought historically immigration has been good for the US, 69% of non-blacks and 53% of blacks thought present-day immigration was bad. Black views may be prompted by different reasons than those of whites, since it is likely that Blacks are resentful of the success of recent immigrants appearing to overtake them economically, \priv\95\14\immtake.txt UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS ARE TAKING JOBS AWAY FROM POOR BLACKS Chicago Tribune Oct 25, 1995 Richard Estrada (Dallas Morning News) \priv\95\14\matlof2.txt Norm Matloff: I made the argument that immigration is hurting African-Americans. To my great surprise, the people accepted my argument and showed great concern about the situation. But to my distress, they said that as long as Republicans (e.g. Lamar Smith) were the ones proposing immigration-reform bills, these liberals would oppose them! One wonders how deep their concern about blacks really is after all. @@Black Americans d:\priv\96\04\11wald.htm - NY Times argues blacks need training, and employers need to hire them, not restrict immigrants. also immwal2.txt comment >>\doc\96\01\econmigr.txt "The economics of immigration" San Francisco Examiner June 13, 1993. Black janitors are down due to immigration, but blacks increase in almost every desirable field, so this is not neccesarily bad. \doc\95\15\econblak.txt Alien Nation, Peter Brimelow p. 173 "Economic Consequences for Blacks". Immigrants replaced and retarded progress of blacks, links rise in problems to 1965 immigration change \priv\95\15\immbackl.txt A Business Week/Harris Poll in 1992 found that while 59% of those surveyed thought historically immigration has been good for the US, 69% of non-blacks and 53% of blacks thought present-day immigration was bad. Black views may be prompted by different reasons than those of whites, since it is likely that Blacks are resentful of the success of recent immigrants appearing to overtake them economically, \priv\95\14\immtake.txt UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS ARE TAKING JOBS AWAY FROM POOR BLACKS Chicago Tribune Oct 25, 1995 Richard Estrada (Dallas Morning News) \priv\95\14\matlof2.txt Norm Matloff: I made the argument that immigration is hurting African-Americans. To my great surprise, the people accepted my argument and showed great concern about the situation. But to my distress, they said that as long as Republicans (e.g. Lamar Smith) were the ones proposing immigration-reform bills, these liberals would oppose them! One wonders how deep their concern about blacks really is after all. @@body shop \priv\95\15\bodshop.txt - Richards starts SoftPac when Americans are replaced by Indian contractors. The Dallas Morning News Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News Oct. 30 -- ENGINEERS, PROGRAMMERS BATTLE 'BODY SHOPPING' @@book Immigrants Out! : The New Nativism and the Anti-Immigrant Impulse in the United States (Critical America) by Juan F. Perea (Editor) Paperback Published by New York Univ Pr Publication date: January 1, 1997 Dimensions (in inches): 9.96 x 7 x 1 ISBN: 0814766420 List: $19.95 http://www.nytimes.com/books/ New York Times Review of Books, search under "immigration" \doc\web\97\03\hingbook.txt From: msk@us.net (Mark Krikorian) New York University Press has just published by Bill Ong Hing. I haven't seen the book yet, but Peter Skerry, in a review in Sunday's New York Times, had this to say: "Mr. Hing has written a long, meandering essay that relies for evidence on a motley mix of tedious summaries of technical economic studies, unpersuasive newspaper articles and personal anecdotes. @@Canada Canada's Yawning Need for Immigrants Grows wsj 7/10/2000 even though canada brings more proportion compared to other nations, it only got 173,000 of 200k oal net immig per 1000 g7 5.6 canada 2.9 germ any 2.8 us 1.2 italy .7 france .7 uk 0 japan CANADA SOURING ON NEW IMMIGRANTS \clip\99\13\canimm.txt New York TIMES 7/2/99 http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/world/canada-identity.html HALIFAX JOURNAL Canada Celebrates Immigrants, but Which Ones? By ANTHONY DePALMA ALIFAX, Nova Scotia -- Certain countries, like certain people, find celebrating their own birthdays a bit awkward. Canada is one. Canada's immigrants are creating a mosaic Howard Schneider Washongton Post Seattle Times Aug 2, 1998 p. A19 17% immigrant about 2x usa 17% dont spaeak eng or french 2% of military nonwhite vs 10 population 40% Toronto, but not hockey over 50% vancouver central school dist have non-eng mother language %%GENERAL Press release and charts http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/971104/d971104.htm \clip\97\28\canada\canada.htm MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 12 December, 1997 \clip\97\28\mignews.txt Canada: 17 Percent Immigrant At the end of 1996, there were five million foreign-born residents in Canada, making immigrants 17 percent of the 29 million Canadians, up from 16 percent in 1991. A total of one million immigrants arrived between 1991 and 1996, including 256,000 in 1993; over half of these recent immigrants were born in Asia; 20 percent were born in Europe. VANCOUVER RATED LESS RACIST TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS THAN TORONTO \DOC\WEB\CLIP\97\23\CANRACI.TXT http://www.arthurhu.com/clip/97/23/canraci.txt CHINESE AND S. ASIANS LEADING IMMIGRANTS TO CANADA So far in 1997, the leading countries of origin for immigrants arriving in Canada were Hong Kong, 18,200; China, 14,000; India, 13,800; Taiwan, 10,400; and Pakistan, 8,200. \CLIP\97\21\MIGNEWS.TXT MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 10 October, 1997 http://migration.ucdavis.edu \clip\97\18\vancouv.txt [For CISNEWS subscribers: This story highlights the interest real estate developers have in high immigration, perhaps also explaining why Fannie Mae, the leading source of home mortgage financing in the United States, has gotten into the business of promoting mass immigration. -- Mark Krikorian] For Vancouver, Party's Over as Immigrants Head Home The Wall Street Journal, July 23, 1997 By TAMSIN CARLISLE Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal \clip\97\08\canpop.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/cana_032697.html Wednesday, March 26, 1997 Immigration helps Canada lead West in population growth by Reuters OTTAWA - Boosted by immigration, Canada's population growth in 1995 was the highest in the Western industrialized world, the government statistics agency said yesterday. Canada's population expanded by 1.3 percent in 1995, with more than half the gains coming from immigration, Statistics Canada said. @@Carrying Capacity Network Population based group that opposes immigration, has hired Yeh Yeh Ling, a Chinese immigrant as one of their spokesbodies. Carrying Capacity Network attack on study that immigrants are beneficial @@children \priv\95\14\immchild.txt - IMMIGRANT CHILDREN AND THEIR FAMILIES: ISSUES FOR RESEARCH AND POLICY (in The Future of Children (Summer/Fall 1995, Volume 5, Number 2) published by The Center for the Future of Children The David and Lucile Packard Foundation) http://www.futureofchildren.org @@Borjas Noted anti-immigrant researcher claims immigrants harm native poor (but most of high high school dropouts ARE immigrants! only 9% of the US has less than high school ed) Immigrants accused of hurting poor http://www.hotcoco.com/news/nation/stories/kbk05585.htm By Mark Helm HEARST NEWSPAPERS "WASHINGTON -- The 300,000 immigrants with less than a high school education who come to the United States each year are driving wages down and pushing unemployment up for unskilled American workers, particularly blacks and Latinos, two professors said last week. "The slight gain in wealth that immigration provides the country as a whole is being paid for by unskilled, native-born workers," George Borjas, a professor at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, told the House Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims. Borjas estimated that while immigration benefits the country by $10 billion annually, American workers without a high school education lose an average of $1,915 a year because of competition from low-skill immigrant laborers. "Basically, immigration, as it stands today, is great for educated, middle-class consumers and terrible for poor, working families," he said. Each year, Borjas said, about 900,000 legal immigrants enter the United States. Of these, one-third have less than a high school education. Nine percent of American workers have less than a high school education." \clip\97\29\borjas.txt Findings We Never Found The New York Times, December 10, 1997 By GEORGE J. BORJAS and RICHARD B. FREEMAN [National Academy of Sciences study: immigrants are not free, cause harm to dropouts] \priv\96\13\borjas.doc Painful Wall Street Journal April 26, 1996 p. 1 Figures Despite His Heritage, Prominent Economist Backs Immigration Cut Born in Cuba, George Borjas Says His Census Research, Not His Past, Guides ideas: Why Congress Is Listening By BOB DAVIS Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET Journal In another study, he calculates that native workers lose $133 billion a year in lower salaries because of immigrant competition; employers pocket the money, and then some, as reduced expenses. Unskilled natives suffer the most. @@Brain Drain CANADA LOSES, US GAINS WHEN CANADIAN HI TECH WORKERS IMMIGRATE \clip\98\17\brain.txt Get tough on brain drain, expert urges Make emigrants from Canada repay subsidy for education: expert By Bert Hill The Ottawa Citizen, November 16, 1998 the brain drain cost Canada $11.8 billion between 1989 and 1996 even though Canada attracted slightly more expertise from abroad than it lost...lost taxpayer investments in emigrants' education as well as the cost of helping new immigrants settle and the time -- up to 15 years -- that it takes for their incomes and taxes to match those of the emigrants they replace. To attract skilled immigrants from abroad, Dr. Devoretz recommended giving immigrants in such high-demand fields as engineering a tax rebate for the first five years of residence. @@Buchanan BUCHANAN ADMIRES ASIANS, BUT HATES OTHER IMMIGRANTS? \clip\2000\01\buch.txt To Reunite a Nation Patrick J. Buchanan January 18, 2000 Richard Nixon Library Yorba Linda, CA Like all of you, I am awed by the achievements of many recent immigrants. Their contributions to Silicon Valley are extraordinary. The over-representation of Asian-born kids in advanced high school math and science classes is awesome, and, to the extent that it is achieved by a superior work ethic, these kids are setting an example for all of us. The contributions that immigrants make in small businesses and hard work in tough jobs that donít pay well merits our admiration and deepest respect. And, many new immigrants show a visible love of this country and an appreciation of freedom that makes you proud to be an American. @@china [[Anti-chinese Date: Wed, 2 Jul 1997 08:10:07 -0400 [Anne Woo-Sam writes:] Dear John, I can't cite primary sources directly, but several books on California history should be saturated with references: these include Alexander Saxton's Indispensable Enemy, one of the later chapters in Saxton's Rise and Fall of the White Republic, Clarence Sandemeyer's The Anti-Chinese Movement in California, and Roger Daniel's Politics of Prejudice. Saxton and Sandemeyer cover the anti-Chinese movement of the late 19th century; Daniel covers the anti- Japanese movement for teh early twentieth-century. You might also look at some of the labor union periodicals that appeared during the time, like the Coast Seaman's Journal and Labor Calrion, which Saxton should cite. Good luck. [[asylum \doc\95\06\chinasy.txt - At no time under the Bush Executive Order did asylum grants exceed a few hundred in any given year -- and this was during a period when boat smuggling traffic was much higher than it is now. EGrant@hr.house.gov [[Exclusion \doc\97\01\green.txt writes about anti-chinese labor movement BOOK DOCUMENTS ANTI-CHINESE IMMIGRATION LAWS \clip\96\10\chinimm.txt H-NET BOOK REVIEW Published by H-Law@msu.edu (November 1996) Lucy E. Salyer. _Laws Harsh as Tigers: Chinese Immigrants and the Shaping of Modern Immigration Law_. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. xix + 338 pp. Notes and index. $45.00 US (cloth), 0-807-82218-3 ISBN and $17.95 US (paper), ISBN 0-807-84530-2. Reviewed for H-Law by Nelson G. Dong, Dorsey & Whitney LLP, Minneapolis, Summary: immigration laws were shaped by fear and hatred of the Chinese, "paper sons" were one response to exclusion. " On the whole, immigrants tended to be poor workers living in cities. Consequently, Americans from all sides perceived them as a threat of one sort or another." Norman Matloff continues this proud tradition of anti-Chinese sentiment, only with an academic bent. \doc\96\06\chinman.txt (citation) "Other than a Chinaman": how U.S. immigration law resulted from and still reflects a policy of exclding and restricting Asian immigration, by Jan C. Ting. 4 Temp. Pol. & Civil Rights Law Review 301-10 (1995) [[College China's brightest leave for America Spokesman Review June 18, 2000 z43\clipim\2000\06\19\china1,china2.efx Most students stay in US, but visa is supposed to be on condition of return. More Chinese students than Japan, previous #1. asian.immigration.china.illegal [[Illegal \clip\97\19\chinship.txt the boatload of Chinese illegals off the West Coast are flown home; WASHINGTON, Aug 27 (Reuter) - Sixty-five Chinese men and women who crossed the Pacific Ocean in a rusting ship and tried to enter the United States illegally were sent home on Wednesday, a U.S. State Department spokeswoman said. The Associated Press, Wednesday, August 27, 1997 \clip\97\03\goldvent.txt Dozens of Chinese From 1993 Voyage Still in Jail The New York Times, February 3, 1997 By Celia W. Dugger \doc\95\14\fuzhou.txt Peter Herz notes that Most illegal PRC nationals come from a handful of counties in the Fuzhou area (specifically Changle, Tingjiang, Lianjiang) \priv\95\14\wschina.txt WS Journal 10/22/95 ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CHINA LEAVES MANY CASUALTIES By Craig S. Smith and Marcus W. Brauchli He is waiting for a call from a man who promised -- for $3,500 upfront, $17,000 on arrival to America \priv\95\14\fujian.txt Los Angeles Times 10/23/95 Illegal immigration has died down as residents of the province which sent most of the Chinese diaspora start concluding it's not worth the risk of failure. WSJ 4/6/96 - Abductions by gangs at JFK airport in NYC WSJ 5/3/95 - US State department warns of 10 boats smuggling Chinese off US shores WSJ 3/29/95 US State department wars 10s of 1000s of Chinese are in Central America waiting to be smuggled. \PRIV\95\05\SNAKHEAD.TXT - As opposed to coyote, Snakehead charges $10,000, lines up job and immigration interview. doc934\chinsmug.txt - Fujianise smuggler Lin Tao Bao has brought in over 50,000 smuggled Chinese. A Philadelphia immigratin attorney estimates at least 2,000 (=100,000 annualized) illegal entries per week. One network smuggled 1,200 Chinese into Canada. doc935\illchin7.txt San Jose Mercury News reports 100,000 illegal Chinese into US per year. doc941\chinsmug.txt 1,390 illegal Chinese immigrants were were caught, 89 were sent home Estimates are that only 5% are caught, which would annualized to 20,000 / year. \priv\95\05\chinill.txt According to the State Department, in 1993 the US was aware of or interdicted 11 Chinese smuggling vessels with over 2,500 aliens, In 1994, this dropped to 5 vessels with 490. In the past two months, it was 2 ships with 212 people (annualized = 24 ships, 1,000 people- [[laws \priv\95\15\immbackl.txt Pulling Up the Ladder The Anti-Immigrant Backlash Indeed the first anti-immigrant law, passed in California, targeted the Chinese. In 1882, the U.S. passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which was not repealed until 1943. Even then, immigration quotas for Chinese were only raised above 105 per year by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The late 1800's were difficult for Chinese in the U.S._the growing trade union movement based part of it's organizing strategy on advocating deportation of Chinese immigrants. Race riots on the West coast were the response of angry whites who blamed Chinese for their woes. (Daniels: 1988) [[mexico d:\priv\95\05\chinmex.txt - reports of Chinese entering through Mexico in early 20th century. [[Poll \clip\97\16\schin.txt From: msk@us.net (Mark Krikorian) Subject: Poll of Chinese in Southern Calif. In a telephone poll based on Chinese surnames in phonebook: ------------------------------------------------ 87% of Southland Chinese immigrants 72% were citizens 75% of noncitzens planned to naturalize 81% of Asians in US over 20 years became citizens 70% are registered voters vs. 62% nationwide --------------- 10% Chinese have experience fair or great deal of discrimination 14% Asians 15% Latinos 11% Whites --------------- 20% someone in family on public assistance --------------- Preferred identification 46% Chinese American, 17% American Chinese, 9% Taiwanese American 7% Hong Kong Americans. 4% American. ------------------ Generations in America Immigrant: 87% 1st American-born generation: 10% 2nd American-born generation: 2% 3rd American-born generation: 1% Where Born and Raised China: 23% Taiwan: 20% Hong Kong: 16% U.S.: 13% Other: 28% see http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/POLLS Chinese in the Southland: a Changing Picture Immigrants make up 87% of what was once a largely U.S.-born community. Optimism about life here is a common thread in the diverse group. Los Angeles Times, Sunday, June 29, 1997 CONNIE KANG, Times Staff Writer \clip\97\16\schin.txt @@citizenship About 31% of the foreign born are citizens, 70% are noncitizens ------------------------------------------------------------ \clip\97\17\citztest.txt A test of citizenship Could you make the grade? MSNBC 7/97 List of sample test questions. You need to answer at least 18 of these 30 questions correctly to pass. Sample: 4. What do the stripes on the flag mean? 7. What do we call a change to the Constitution? 8. How many branches are there in our government? 9. How many full terms can a president serve? 10. Who nominates judges of the Supreme Court? 11. How many Supreme Court justices are there? 14. Who wrote the Star-Spangled Banner? 15. What is the minimum voting age in the United States? 16. Who was president during the Civil War? 21. What were the 13 original states of the United States called? 22. In what year was the Constitution written? 23. What is the introduction to the Constitution called? 24. Which president was the first Commander in Chief of the United States Army and Navy? 26. How many times may a senator be re-elected? 28. Who elects the president of the United States? 30. Who becomes president if both the president and vice president die? \clip\97\16\schin.txt Chinese in the Southland: a Changing Picture Immigrants make up 87% of what was once a largely U.S.-born community. Optimism about life here is a common thread in the diverse group. Los Angeles Times, Sunday, June 29, 1997 CONNIE KANG, Times Staff Writer In a telephone poll based on Chinese surnames in phonebook: ------------------------------------------------ 87% of Southland Chinese immigrants 72% were citizens 75% of noncitzens planned to naturalize 81% of Asians in US over 20 years became citizens 70% are registered voters vs. 62% nationwide asian.immigration.citizenship-test \doc\96\01\eldrtest.txt "Case managers say welfare reform hurts elderly clients" Dean Wong, International Examiner (Seattle) Jan 17, 1996 p. 6 Elderly may now pass a test of only 10 questions in their own language, but still difficult for many. \priv\95\20\washcitz.txt WAVE OF IMMIGRANTS SEEKING U.S. CITIZENSHIP By IMBERT MATTHEE Dec. 26, 1995, (c) Seattle Post-IntelligencerTo become a U.S. citizen, resident aliens must complete a three-month course in English, U.S. history and government. They can't have a significant criminal record and must have filed their income taxes. \clip\97\13\citz.txt Natural(ized) Americans March 1997, American Demographics by Marcia Mogelonsky 20% of new citizens (the ones who aren't born) naturalize. Overall, in 1995, 31% of 23 million foreign born had become citizens. Almost half of those naturalized between 1991 and 1994 were from Asia; 27 percent originally came from North and Central American countries, including the Caribbean. Just 12 percent were from Europe. One Nation, Divisible Feb 1993 American Demographics Nationally, 40 percent of the foreign-born are citizens. - Asians naturalize at the highest rates, Europans about average, Latinos at the lowest Criminals %%criminal \clip\96\05\crimcitz.txt AP 25-Feb-1997 2:06 EST REF5830 Copyright 1997. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. Many Criminals Become Citizens \clip\96\05\citzcrim.txt New Citizens Hid Past Crimes, INS Agent Says Los Angeles Times, September 24, 1996 Immigration: Agency disputes claim that about 5,000 naturalized in L.A. ceremonies concealed their records. [FBI check shows only 69 of 50,000 total might not be eligible because of serious offences.] %%rate \priv\95\07\secthou.txt Richard Kirschten, "Second Thoughts" *National Journal* 1/21/95 pp 150-55. - Less than 10 percent of population is foreign born, about one-third are naturalized citizens. \clip\96\06\citzusa.txt AP 9-Oct-1996 "INS" Defends Citizenship USA By CASSANDRA BURRELL Associated Press Writer In Sept 1995, there were 800,000 applications pending, but only staff to process half. They rose to 1 million in fiscal 1996, some waiting 2 years. With new hiring and management, 1.3 million were processed in the 1st year of "Citizenship USA". Rejection rates remained at 17 percent. \clip\96\40\natsurge.txt Date: Fri, 13 Sep 1996 09:22:10 -0400 Immigrants' Anxieties Spur a Surge in Naturalizations The New York Times, September 13, 1996 By SAM HOWE VERHOVEK "These mass swearings-in are all part of a surge in naturalizations in recent months that has no parallel in U.S. history, one that many experts say is fueled in part by the anti-immigrant laws and public sentiment of recent years." "By the time the fiscal year ends Sept. 30, nearly 1.1 million immigrants will have become citizens this year, shattering the record, [more than doubling] set just last year, of 445,853 naturalizations, according to the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The previous record was in 1944, when 441,979 foreign-born residents became U.S. citizens." %%requirements \clip\96\04\citzclas2.txt Date: Mon, 16 Sep 1996 06:37:28 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Citizenship classes inundated Fear of impending welfare cuts spurs signups by legal immigrants By Carolyn Jung Mercury News Staff Writer. English requirement causes legal immigrants to flood english classes to keep their welfare and SSI benefits. Naturalized Citizenship requirements: * Legal immigrant * At least 18 * understand basic English * have a knowledge of the rudiments of U.S. history and government * lived in the United States for at least five years or be married to a citizen for at least three years. * Permanent residents who are 50 years old and have held a work permit for 20 years, or 55 years old with a green card for 15 years, can take the exam in their native language. All others must take the test in english %%foreign born \priv\96\13\NATNDIVI.HTM One Nation, Divisible Feb 1993 American Demographics Nationally, 40 percent of the foreign-born are citizens. But in the District of Columbia and neighboring Arlington, fewer than 30 percent have taken the oath. Asians are higher, carribean immigrant have lower than average naturalization rates. index: asian.immigration.citizen %%test CITIZENSHIP TESTS VARY FROM EASY TO REALLY HARD \clip\97\11\cittest.txt U.S. Citizenship Tests Vary The Associated Press, Wednesday, April 16, 1997 By DEB RIECHMANN Associated Press Writer [Tests vary from 3 simple questions and writing a sentence to naming the number of amendments in the constitution, there is no standard content or passing score] WASHINGTON (AP) -- To become an American citizen, Yolanda Bolanos of Maryland had to answer three questions about the U.S. government and write the sentence, ``How is the day today?'' c:\clip\97\04\citztest.txt DISABLED IMMIGRANTS CAN SKIP CITIZENSHIP TEST http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/disa_021797.html \clip\97\04\citztest.txt The Seattle Times Company Feb. 17, 1997 Easy citizenship for disabled? U.S. would waive exams for some legal immigrants New INS Rules Could Aid Disabled Immigrants Los Angeles Times, February 16, 1997 "Under a long-time practice, exemptions to the English language requirement are available for elderly immigrants who have been residing in the United States for at least 15 years. In addition, those 65 and older with at least 20 years as lawful residents have been able to take a simplified civics test, while disabled persons have been permitted to take the citizenship interview and oath at their homes." asian.immigration.citizenship-test \doc\96\01\eldrtest.txt "Case managers say welfare reform hurts elderly clients" Dean Wong, International Examiner (Seattle) Jan 17, 1996 p. 6 Elderly may now pass a test of only 10 questions in their own language, but still difficult for many. \priv\95\20\washcitz.txt WAVE OF IMMIGRANTS SEEKING U.S. CITIZENSHIP By IMBERT MATTHEE Dec. 26, 1995, (c) Seattle Post-IntelligencerTo become a U.S. citizen, resident aliens must complete a three-month course in English, U.S. history and government. They can't have a significant criminal record and must have filed their income taxes. @@city [[Miami \priv\95\14\miamimm.txt - Nearly half of Miami is immigrant, Jamaicans do well, Haitian worse, AfAm natives in between Many cubans do best of LatAm, but newcomers lower the average [[ Washington DC Lives Transplanted, a Region Transformed. Immigrants change neighborhood, chart By D'Vera Cohn and Pamela Constable Washington Post Staff Writers Sunday, August 30, 1998; Page A1 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/immigration/immstoryday1a.htm \clip\98\11\dcimm\dcimm2.htm \clip\98\11\dcimm\immstoryday1a.htm Percent foreign born for the region 1970 4.5% 1980 8% 1990 12% 1998 17% 1 in six is foreign born, 90% choose suburbs first DC's highest concentration of immigrants In the Barrio, All Face a Struggle By Pamela Constable Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, August 30, 1998; Page A19 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/immigration/immside1.htm \clip\98\11\dcimm\immside1.htm @@coast guard \doc\96\06\coasguar.txt The June Coast Guard numbers are as follows: Month; Total; Haitians; Dominicans; Chinese (PRC); Cubans; Others June '96; 516; 66; 429; 0; 17; 4 (Yugoslavs) May '96; 848; 0; 802; 0; 46; 0 June '95; 324; 41; 235; 0; 42; 5 The largest June 1996 apprehension was 130 Dominicans on June 21, 41 nautical miles east of Puerto Rico. @@college aid >>\PRIV\95\20\STUDFUND.TXT THE VAST MAJORITY OF FOREIGN STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES -- MORE THAN 68 PERCENT -- FINANCE THEIR EDUCATION THROUGH PERSONAL OR FAMILY FUNDS. ABOUT 16 PERCENT RECEIVE FINANCIAL AID FROM THEIR AMERICAN COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY, AND 5 PERCENT GET HELP FROM THEIR HOME COUNTRY OR UNIVERSITY. There is less FINANCIAL AID AVAILABLE EITHER FROM AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS OR FROM THE U.S. GOVERNMENT, WHICH PROVIDES PRIMARY FUNDING FOR ONLY 1.2 PERCENT OF FOREIGN STUDENTS. \priv\95\16\immaid.txt - bill will remove federally funded aid to immigrants, even naturalized citizens. @@college hire \clip\96\03\exprhand.txt EE Times June 10, 1996 Issue: 905 Section: The Profession Experienced hands rate 'slight' hiring edge. National Association of Colleges and Employers finds that 37% of surveyed employers are shifting towards more new-graduate hires, overall 60% of openings go to experienced workers. \clip\96\03\techdeg.txt EE Times July 29, 1996 Issue: 912 Section: The Profession -- The Work Week Tech degrees pull in job offers By Robert Bellinger. BSEE's broke the $38,000 barrier, 5.4% more than the past year. Nearly half of all reported offers went to technical graduates. One-third of these went to engineers alone, the rest to mathematicians, physicists and scientists. Chemical engineers got the highest offers at $41,611. Norman Matloff of UC Davis says there are too many engineers and immigrants lower salaries, yet no field has higher wages, higher growth, or higher rate of hire compared to say, liberal arts majors. c:\clip\97\03\forstud.txt http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970203S0143 EE Times February 03, 1997, Issue: 939 "Foreign students move in" By Robert Bellinger This citation http://www.arthurhu.com/index/acollege.htm#foreign Top Majors 33% engineering / science 16% business 8% social science Top countries 1995-96 453,787 Total 45,531 Japan 39,613 People's Republic of China 36,231 South Korea 32,702 Taiwan Foreign Students 1996 57.3 Asian 14.8 European 48% Undergraduate 42% Graduate "on average, Japanese and Korean engineering students have returned home because they have thriving industries and jobs waiting for them. Indians and Taiwanese have tended to seek jobs in the United States." @@college students - see college, foreign HALF OF CUNY FRESHMEN ARE IMMIGRANTS \clip\97\03\cuny.txt CUNY's New Offering: Quick Guide to Citizenship The New York Times, February 6, 1997 By KAREN W. ARENSON About 47 percent of its freshmen are foreign-born and CUNY predicts that by the year 2000, it will be half. @@congress, how to reach \priv\95\18\IFCSSLob.txt Please feel free to make use of this account while you want to send a mail to all Senators in Senate Judiciary Committee. Please remem- ber, while you send a message, your voice is registered. Write your message to: Simpson_bill@ifcss.org gets to all email boxes in congress. @@Companies If immigrants are so harmful, why are these companies doing so well? Could it be because they hire so many immigrants NAAAAAAAH. %%Business Week S&P Top 50 BUSINESS WEEK NAMES INTEL AND MICROSOFT AT TOP OF THE S&P 500 http://www.businessweek.com/ TABLE: The Business Week Fifty 1 INTEL 2 MICROSOFT 3 DELL COMPUTER 4 CISCO SYSTEMS 5 TRAVELERS GROUP 6 MERCK 7 NIKE 8 COMPAQ COMPUTER 9 MBNA 10 PFIZER 11 ORACLE 12 NATIONSBANK 13 SUN MICROSYSTEMS %%Fortune INTEL AND MICROSOFT MAKE Most Admired Companies: Masters of Innovation Fortune Cover: March 3, 1997 1. Coca Cola 2. Mirage Resorts 3. Merk 4. United Parcel Service 5. Microsoft 6. Johnson & Johnson 7. Intel 8. Pfizer 9. Procter & Gamble 10. Berkshire & Company @@cost \priv\96b\05\mignews.txt A new study by the Tomas Rivera Center found that, over the course of their lifetimes, immigrants contribute more in taxes to California than they cost in government services About nine percent of the foreign-born mothers aged 14 to 44 were on AFDC, compared to 11 percent of the native-born mothers in the same age group. \priv\95\05\huddimm.txt - There would be no state budge deficit in NY State if there were no immigrants. Huddle study \priv\95\05\ciscost.txt - CIS studies on immigration costs \doc\95\03\immcost7.txt Rand study on costs \clip\97\08\njimm.txt N.J. Immigrants' Diversity and Education Tied to Public Backing The New York Times , March 19, 1997 By CELIA W. DUGGER - estimates illegal costs as $153 million vs. $130 in taxes paid by illegal immigrants. -Kristin F. Butcher, an assistant professor of economics at Boston College, and Anne M. Piehl, an assistant professor of public policy at Harvard University, reviewed the economic data and found that immigrants had not damaged the wages or employment of U.S.-born workers - immigrants receive somewhat more in benefits than they pay in taxes. That is largely because immigrant households earn slightly less than native-born people and have more children. - estimated that a native-born household pays on average $250 a year more in state and local taxes because of the 1 million immigrants who live in New Jersey. \priv\96b\06\immretu.txt June 10, 1996 IMMIGRANTS RETURN MORE THAN THEIR SHARE: New Tomas Rivera Center Study Highlights Immigrant Lifetime Contributions to California \priv\96b\05\mignews.txt The Latino Institute and the Urban Institute issued a report on May 16 estimating that the 244,000 unauthorized immigrants in Illinois pay about $547 million annually in taxes, and receive $238 million in services--virtually all of the expenditures were for providing K-12 education to an estimated 33,000 unauthorized children at an average annual cost of $7,000. \priv\96b\05\mignews.txt A new study by the Tomas Rivera Center found that, over the course of their lifetimes, immigrants contribute more in taxes to California than they cost in government services. The report found that the average immigrant costs the state of California about $62,600 in educational expenditures. However, when lifetime tax payments are adjusted to reflect what is repaid solely in education taxes, the immigrant will return about $89,437. According to the study, taxes for education plus those for social programs are $24,493 for legal immigrants, and $7,890 for illegal aliens. \priv\95\15\taxrent.txt \priv\95\14\mexpay.txt - Raoul Lowery Contreras says even illegal immigrants pay rents that pay property taxes, that therefore pay for schools. Emergency care is minimal, probably swamped by sales taxes. \priv\95\14\hudcost.txt - new 95 study by Huddle on immigration costs The 21.9 million legal and illegal immigrants settling in the United States since 1970 cost $51.32 billion in 1994 alone in excess of taxes those immigrants paid. This amount represents a substantial increase over the net cost of $44.18 billion in 1993 and $42.5 billion in 1992. \priv\95\14\hudwrong.txt - Huddle is wrong says Hisp journalist \priv\95\14\matcost.txt - Matloff says undoc pays no taxes, cost in schools @@contributions \priv\96\02\animmigr.txt Story of David Chiang's immigrants parents, developed flavor chemical and professor of Nursing school. @@crime [[decline Crime is declining, not increasing with immigration \doc\95\15\immgcrim.txt - 25% of federal prisons, mostly drug violations In 1990 19.4% of CA state prisoners were foreign born vs. 21.7% of the state population, 15% were illegal aliens vs. 3.5-7% of the population. Why import more if they're not any better (actually the legal immigrants do appear to be better behaved) MIAMI IMMIGRANTS HAVE LOWER HOMICIDE RATES http://www.arthurhu.com/99/07/immcrim.txt Immigration and the Ethnic Distribution of Homicide in Miami, 1985-1995 by R Martinez Jr and M T Lee Homicide Studies, Volume 2, Issue 3, August 1998, pp. 291-304 Study information came from Miami police records. Results revealed that the groups with higher proportions of foreign-born members had comparatively low homicide rates. IMMIGRATION UP, CRIME IS DOWN http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/crim_060597.html c:\clip\97\15\crimdrop.txt The Seattle Times Company Thursday, June 5, 1997 Why did crime drop? Pick a theory http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/crib_060597.html Thursday, June 5, 1997 Crime drops nationally According to preliminary statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, these categories of crimes declined across the country in 1996 from the previous year: Category Decline Percent Total crime -3 Violent crime -7 Murder -11 Forcible Rape -3 Robbery -8 Property crime -3 Burglary -5 Larceny/theft -2 Motor-vehicle theft -5 [[deport \clip\97\19\deported.txt Houston Chronicle 8/29/1996 54,362 illegal immigrants, many found in jail By GREG MCDONALD Copyright 1996 Houston Chronicle Washington Bureau "of the 54,362 illegal immigrants deported in the first 10 months of the 1996 fiscal year, 29,207 had been convicted of crimes ranging from murder and theft to drug dealing. an estimated 100,000 "foreign born" noncitizens remain in U.S. jails today" \clip\96\03\deport.txt AP 29-Aug-1996 17:26 EDT REF5068 By CASSANDRA BURRELL Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- The government has deported more illegal immigrants this year than it did in all of 1995, the Immigration and Naturalization Service said Thursday. 54,362 were deported in 10 months vs. 50,200 for all of 1995. 29,207 were convicted of committing crimes, 25,155 were noncriminal. [[MONEY LAUNDERING \CLIP\97\07\IMMLAUN.TXT AP 11-Mar-1997 16:11 EST REF5941 Crackdown on Immigrant Money Stores [used to launder large amounts of drug money, amounts exceed average income of immigrants] \CLIP\96\12\MONYLAUN.TXT AP 23-Dec-1996 8:55 EST REF5243 Copyright 1996. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. Feds Bust Hispanic Immigrant Stores NEW YORK (AP) -- Federal authorities are cracking down on a massive money laundering operation that has moved millions of dollars in drug profits into Colombia, the Daily News reported Monday. [[prisons \clip\97\19\noncit.txt [ Note: Noncitizens comprised 5 percent of inmates, or 51,500, in 1995, double the number in 1990. ] Copyright 1997 Associated Press. All rights reserved. 08/07/1997 16:31 EST Prison, Inmate Numbers Surge By CASSANDRA BURRELL Associated Press Noncitizens are about 70% of the foreign born, who are 9% of the population or 6.3%, so 5% noncitizen is LESS than their population \priv\96b\05\only24.txt [For CISNEWS subscribers -- "Only" 24 percent? -- Mark Krikorian] Los Angeles Times, Wednesday, June 26, 1996 INS Seeks to Exit Anaheim Jail Corrections: During its 60-day stay, agency says it found only 24% of those arrested were in U.S. illegally. One councilman calls its conclusions 'unconscionable.' \doc\95\15\immgcrim.txt (sorry. lost the article, I think it's from the manhattan institute) 25% of federal prisons, mostly drug violations In 1990 19.4% of CA state prisoners were foreign born vs. 21.7% of the state population, 15% were illegal aliens vs. 3.5-7% of the population. (-1.11 ratio) Why import more if they're not any better (actually the legal immigrants do appear to be better behaved) [[prostitution Asian immigrants are sometimes arrested for prostitution or running prostitution rings. \doc\96\02\bellpros.txt Asian House of Prostitution Busted in Bellevue "11 arrested for prostitution in Bellevue" Seattle Post Intelligencer March 21, 1996 p. B2 filed under asian.prostitution, asian.immigration.crime [[RATE MORE IMMIGRANTS, LESS VIOLENT CRIME \doc\97\01\violcrim.txt f010507-2 Violent Crime Continues To Decline Seattle Times Jan 5, 1997 (New York Time) Fox Butterfield The five-year long decline in serious and violent crime continued in the 1st half of 1996 according to FBI figures. This is finally convincing skeptics that the decline is real, not a statistical fluke @@Deaths \clip\97\19\death.txt 1,185 illegal immigrants died at U.S. border in 3 years http://cnn.com/US/9708/12/briefs/border.deaths.ap/index.html Cnn web August 12, 1997 HOUSTON (AP) -- A total of 1,185 people died between 1993 and 1996 as they tried to illegally enter the country from Mexico, according to a new study. \priv\96b\08\deatcros.txt So far this year, the bodies of 11 people crossing illegally into Arizona have been recovered in remote desert areas along the U.S.-Mexico border, and the border patrol has rescued about 60 illegal entrants lost in remote deserts, \priv\96b\03\aldie.txt 5 Illegal Aliens Found Dead By ARTHUR H. ROTSTEIN Associated Press Writer Tuesday, June 18, 1996 Illegal aliens trying to cross the border in Arizona have been found dead of dehydration and heat exposure \priv\96b\01\mexdeath.txt June 13, 1996 newshound "MEXICO: INDIGNATION OVER NEW U.S. ANTI-IMMIGRANT ..."A study by Mexico's Foreign Ministry indicates that violence by U.S. police was responsible for the deaths of some 100 Mexican illegal immigrants from 1989 to 1995. \priv\96\04\rivdeath.txt HOUSTON, March 14 (Reuter) - As many as 3,200 illegal immigrants died along the Texas-Mexico border between 1985 and 1994, most by drowning in the swift waters of the Rio Grande, according to a study released on Thursday. @@debate \clip\96\03\imporpov.txt Slate Aug 1996 discussion on immigration: importing poverty? @@deportations \clip\97\25\deport.txt 100,000 deported, 77,000 left on their own, 100,000 turned back at border. \clip\96\03\deport.txt AP 29-Aug-1996 17:26 EDT REF5068 By CASSANDRA BURRELL Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- The government has deported more illegal immigrants this year than it did in all of 1995, the Immigration and Naturalization Service said Thursday. 54,362 were deported in 10 months vs. 50,200 for all of 1995. 29,207 were convicted of committing crimes, 25,155 were noncriminal. \priv\95\20\USBootsR.txt AP 27 Dec 95 US Boots Record Number Aliens WASHINGTON (AP) -- The United States deported a record 51,600 illegal aliens during 1995, a 15 percent increase over last year, @@detention \clip\97\04\venture.txt Subject: Golden Venture detainees to go free U.S. Decides to Free Golden Venture Immigrants The New York Times, February 15, 1997 By CELIA W. DUGGER NEW YORK -- The Clinton administration decided Friday to release all 53 remaining illegal Chinese immigrants who have been detained by federal immigration authorities since the freighter Golden Venture ran aground off Queens three years and eight months ago. @@deaths %%deaths \priv\96\04\rivdeath.txt HOUSTON, March 14 (Reuter) - As many as 3,200 illegal immigrants died along the Texas-Mexico border between 1985 and 1994, most by drowning in the swift waters of the Rio Grande, according to a study released on Thursday. %%deportations >> \priv\95\20\USBootsR.txt AP 27 Dec 95 US Boots Record Number Aliens WASHINGTON (AP) -- The United States deported a record 51,600 illegal aliens during 1995, a 15 percent increase over last year, @@disease Alien Nation p. 187 cites TB, leprosy, measles, cholera, malaria, and dengue fever as particular to immigrants. He also lists AIDS elsewhere from Haiti. \priv\95\13\immdise.txt - Mexicans bring tropical fever to the US; @@diversity quota \priv\95\14\divquota.txt - explains breakdown of "diversity" category of immigration @@divide \doc\95\05\immnat.txt US now split native / immigrant rather than white / black. @@doctor The AMA is complaining about a doctor surplus, much as some complain that foreigners are taking jobs away from American engineers. Medicine is one of the only two fields that pays more than computer engineering. \clip\98\10\fordoc.txt Tide turning for doctors from abroad Medicine: Physicians from overseas find their calling in Crisfield, but a backlash might curtail the number practicing in the United States. By Jonathan Bor Sun Staff Baltimore Sun, August 4, 1998 "Today, 22,000 -- almost a fifth -- of the 104,000 medical residents training in U.S. hospitals come from other countries. Most come here on visas that require them to leave at the end of their training, presumably to apply their medical knowledge back home. But more than 1,000 each year obtain waivers that allow them to stay if they spend three years working in places shunned by American doctors." From: dchiang@juno.com 3/3/97 On CNN the other night, the head of the AMA was complaining about too many foreign graduate doctors in America. He was quoted as saying that the biggest problem facing the medical establishment in America was too many foreign doctors. The AMA promises to make the elimination of foreign graduate doctors the number 1 lobbying priority for the organization? Has the quality of medical care fallen in the AMA CALLS FOR CUT IN FOREIGN DOCTORS TO CUT "GLUT" \clip\97\06\cutfor.txt Cut foreign students, medical groups say [But they don't offer any numbers to support their contention of a 'glut' of doctors!] By Larry Tye, Globe Staff, 02/27/97 The American Medical Association and other powerful US health groups tomorrow will unveil what they call a cure for America's growing glut of doctors: dramatically cutting the number of foreign medical school graduates allowed to train here, and making those who are admitted go home afterward. \clip\96\10\canadoct.txt Canadian specialists are coming to the US where it is easy to get doctors approved, but there is no shortage here. \priv\96b\04\immdoct.txt Chicago Tribune, Sunday, June 23, 1996 FOREIGN DOCTORS FEAR WELCOME WILL END CHANGING CLIMATE IN U.S. MEDICINE MAY CLOSE DOORS By Stephen Franklin, Tribune Staff Writer Foreign doctors do jobs no American will do, either undesirable inner-city, low pay or both, but others say there are a surplus of doctors. >>\doc\96\02\curbimg.txt "How Curbing Immigration Could Hurt Health Care in Inner Cities, Rural Areas" Wall Street Journal March 5, 1996 p. b1 23.9% med grads foreign US, 57% New Jersey States with higher % of foreign medical graduates: 57.5 New Jersey 45.1 New York 43.0 Nevada 40.2 North Dakota 36.5 Illinois 36.4 Connecticut 23.9 United States Source: American Medical Journal \priv\96\02\manymd.txt -Excess of Foreign Physicians 1996 The New York Times, Jan. 24, 1996 Too many foreign doctors being trained, doubling doctors in past 25 years. Cut med schools by 20% and send aid to rural and inner city areas being served by fmg. \priv\95\17\immdoct.txt The United States has too many doctors, nurses and pharmacists and should reduce the glut by shutting down at least 20 percent of its medical schools over the next decade, a private commission recommended today. \priv\95\14\impol.txt 33.5% of doctors in Chicago area are immigrants Chicago Tribune Oct 12, 1995 @@drivers licence \clip\96\04\immdriv.txt Arizona requires proof of legal residence before issuing drivers licence. Arizona Republic, Sept. 17, 1996 By Mary Jo Pitzl Staff writer Hispanic activists are enraged at a new state law that requires people to prove they are in the United States legally before getting an Arizona driver's license. @@dual citizenship \clip\98\07\dualcit.txt Dual Citizenship Stirs Debate Is It a Double-Edged Sword? The Wall Street Journal, March 25, 1998 By G. PASCAL ZACHARY Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal Are two passports better than one? @@education cost \doc\96\04\illed.txt MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 3, No. 7 July, 1996 Such checks would keep out the estimated 600,000 to 700,000 or 1.5 percent unauthorized children among the 45 million K-12 pupils in public schools. Another six million children who attend private schools would not be affected. The cost of educating illegal alien children in the US is $3 to $3.5 billion per year, based on an average cost of $5,000 per child per year. The Urban Institute estimated the number of illegal alien children in schools in the seven major immigrant states in 1994: California, 307,000; Florida, 97,000; Texas, 94,000; New York, 88,000; Illinois, 24,000; New Jersey, 16,000; and Arizona, 15,000. @@Education for americans CIS study "suggests" that immigrant engineers reduces need to train minorities and women. \doc\95\14\hirefor.txt "Hiring foreign workers: A two-edged sword" SPI Oct 4, 1995 - Commisioner Richard Estrada, and editor with the Dallas Morning News, argues hiring too many foreigners reduces the pressure to train Americans in math and science. Bruce Ramsey observes that Microsoft needs 1,200 people NOW. Hiring Foreign @@Education cost \clip\97\20\nycsch.txt Immigration and Crowded Schools by Robert Malloy, Center for Immigration Studies New York Post, August 31, 1997 The sudden furor over crowding and teacher shortages in New York City's schools and classrooms has so far overlooked one obvious cause: immigration. \priv\95\15\ed187.txt - Prop 187 says illegal children must be expelled from schools \priv\95\14\immedaid.txt - welfare reform would take college aid away from legal immigrants @@Education achievement IMMIGRANTS MAY BE POOR, BUT ONLY HALF AS MANY SINGLE PARENT FAMILES = BETTER ADJUSTED, BETTER STUDENTS \clip\98\15\imclip01.txt Immigrant kids better adjusted, study says: Fewer problems than their peers born in Canada By Elaine Carey The Toronto Star, October 27, 1998 Immigrant and refugee children are doing better emotionally and academically than their Canadian-born peers, even though far more of them are poor, according to a new study headed by Dr. Morton Beiser, director of the Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Settlement [CERIS] at Toronto's three universities. They also ``consistently outperform native-born children in school and are more likely to be class valedictorians,'' says the study, based on a Statistics Canada survey of 23,000 children, their parents, teachers and principals. 90% OF IMM CHILDREN SPEAK NON-ENGLISH, BUT 90% PREFER ENGLISH BY GRADE 12 \CLIP\98\07\immstud.txt http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/national/immigrant-children.html New York Times, March 21, 1998 Best Students Are Immigrants' Children, Study Says By CELIA W. DUGGER [Professor Ruben Rumbaut, a sociologist at Michigan State University]A multiyear survey that is the largest ever of the children of immigrants -- who now account for almost one in five American children -- found that they overwhelmingly prefer English to their parents' native tongues and have higher grades and steeply lower school dropout rates than other American children. \clip\98\04\immbost.txt B1 Boston Globe on 02/15/98. By Beth Daley, Globe Staff Their success is as poignant as it is thought-provoking: The stars of Boston's public schools are overwhelmingly immigrants or children of immigrants. "Of 36 Boston high school valedictorians in the past two years, 28 either were foreign-born or had parents who were (77%). The percentages are similar among top students in the city's middle schools, school officials say. Yet such students make up less than 25 percent of Boston public school enrollment. " See education / immigrant for rumbaut study http://www.herald.com: 80/americas/digdocs/044242.htm Published Sunday, August 3, 1997, in the Miami Herald Immigrant youths leap schooling hurdles here Many relearning how to learn By MARIA A. MORALES Herald Staff Writer \priv\96b\07\immed.txt Asian Americans perform as well or better than natives in school, Hispanics are much weaker. \clip\97\15\schbad\schbad.htm CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS FLUNK THE REASON? IMMIGRATION (title from anti-immigrant Voices of Citizens Together) ELAINE WOO, Los Angeles Times Education Writer January 17, 1997 @@education amount Norman Matloff counters the fact that immigrants are more educated, and paid more because of it by pretending that no job needs a degree, especially post graduate. MATLOFF SAYS THEY'RE WORTHLESS, BUT COLLEGE DEGREES AND POSTGRADS EARN MORE http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/reha_010997.html \clip\97\01\moreed.txt Seattle Times Jan. 9, 1997 Looking at schools, jobs in a new way by Janice E. Reha Special to The Seattle Times @@Education Preference \clip\98\06\immdip.txt Critics say requiring a diploma is 'offensive' betrayal of history USA Today, March 18, 1998, p. 10A By Maria Puente USA TODAY WASHINGTON -- Foreigners with high school educations would move to the top of the list of people legally allowed to immigrate to the USA, under a controversial plan floated Tuesday on Capitol Hill. @@employment sanction \clip\96\02\poul.txt Date: Fri, 16 Aug 1996 00:21:30 -0400 Poultry Companies Join INS Program to Halt Illegal Labor By Philip Dine, St. Louis Post-Dispatch Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News Aug. 16--In a bid to keep illegal immigrants out of the labor force, several poultry companies in Missouri and six other states have joined a pioneer program of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. \clip\96\02\inschek.txt Date: Fri, 2 Aug 1996 01:56:00 -0400 Florida to Check INS Files, Penalize Employers Who Hire Illegal Aliens By SHIRISH DATE Associated Press Writer \priv\95\14\britfine.txt - Business complain about plan to fine businesses that hire illegal immigrants. @@energy IMMIGRATION CAUSED POWER CRISIS (?!) z47\clip\2001\01\immener.txt Analysis: Environmentalists attack Sierra Club http://www.vny.com/cf/News/upidetail.cfm?QID=153630 By STEVE SAILER, UPI National Correspondent Friday, 19 January 2001 Members of Californians for Population Stabilization argue that the environmental establishment has fallen silent about the main cause of increased energy demand -- California's rapidly growing population -- in an attempt to not offend burgeoning immigrant ethnic groups. @@enforcement \priv\95\04\instips.txt - INS can't follow up reports of illegal immigrants @@H-1 visa @@engineer H-1 visa %%Black Opposition H-1 HARMS MINORITY WORKERS WHO SHOULD BE HIRED AT SAME RATE AS ECONOMY AS WHOLE (?) z45\clip\2000\10\h1harm.txt On the Sidelines H-1B leaves minority workers on sidelines, groups say Carrie Kirby, Chronicle Staff Writer Thursday, October 19, 2000 http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/ archive/2000/10/19/BU91243.DTL William Kramer didn't want to blame racial prejudice for his failure to find an engineering job. National Science Foundation data on under-represented workers in science, engineering and technology fields: Percent of science Percent of and tech workers(a) total workforce(b) Women 19.4% 46% People with disabilities 5.5% 14% African Americans 3.2% 11% Hispanics 3% 10% American Indians 0.3% NA (a) - Source: National Science Foundation/ Science Resource Studies, 1997 (b) - U.S. Census Bureau, 1998 BLACKS CITE MATLOFF TO OPPOSE H1 VISAS z42\doc\web\2000\06\blakimm.txt LETTER TO : Richard Gephardt RE: Please don't let H-1B block African-Americans' on-ramp to the information super highway. %%General US NEWS SUPPORTS H-1B INCREASE \clip\99\10\brainy.txt From: Yang Cai US News World Report Editorial 7/27/98 BY MORTIMER B. ZUCKERMAN / EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Give us your brainy masses Attempts to limit immigration by high-skill workers only hurt America America more than lives up to the inscription on the Statue of Liberty. Foreign worker visas revived http://www.mercurycenter.com/premium/front/docs/techlaws14.htm October 14, 1998 By Jim Puzzanghera San Jose Mercury News "Riding a months-long roller coaster worthy of the stock market, legislation to allow more skilled foreign workers into the country appears to be back on track, just days after it was widely presumed to have crashed. Congressional and White House negotiators agreed Tuesday to include an expansion of the H-1B visa program -- eagerly sought by the high-tech industry -- in the huge budget bill still being crafted. That parliamentary maneuver is designed to thwart one lawmaker: Sen. Tom Harkin, D-Iowa, who blocked the H-1B expansion last Friday when it came up as a separate bill. It was a good day for Silicon Valley in the nation's capital. High-tech officials also celebrated the overwhelming passage in the Senate and House of Representatives of the industry's other top legislative priority -- a bill to curtail class-action lawsuits against companies that undergo wild price swings in their stock prices." \clip\98\14\noh1.txt Saturday October 10 7:29 PM EDT >Senate Fails To Address Immigration >WASHINGTON (AP) _ Legislation to allow nearly twice as many >computer-savvy foreigners and other high-skilled immigrants into >the country next year apparently has died in Congress. >The House passed the compromise measure last month, 288-133, but >Sen. Tom Harkin, D-Iowa, had blocked a vote in the Senate. CONSERVATIVE REPUBLICANS IN AREASPACE AREAS OPPOSE H1 \clip\98\13\cah1.txt http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/FRONT/t000087323.html Los Angeles Times, September 25, 1998 House Lifts Visa Cap for High-Tech Workers Among Republicans, those voting no: Elton Gallegly (Simi Valley), Stephen Horn (Long Beach), Duncan Hunter (El Cajon), Frank Riggs (Windsor), Rohrabacher and Edward R. Royce (Fullerton). SEPT 98 DEAL REACHED TO INCREASE CAP \clip\98\13\h1deal.txt Deal Reached on Foreign Workers: Compromise Aimed at Meeting Demand for High-Tech Skills By William Branigin Washington Post, September 24, 1998; Page A02 The White House and a key Republican senator reached a compromise last night on a controversial visa program for high-tech workers, clearing the way for the U.S. computer industry to import more than 300,000 foreign programmers and other highly skilled employees over the next three years. http://www.zdnet.com/zdnn/stories/zdnn_lggraph_display/0,3442,2139125,00.html Immigration battle looms over 'imported' high-tech workers By Maria Seminerio, ZDNN September 20, 1998 11:53 AM PT (thank god, an article that does NOT mention matloff) MICROSOFT MIGHT LOSE 80 ENGINEERS IF CAP NOT LIFTED senate mulls lifting lid on engineering visas ee times mar 2, 1998 p. 16 republicans and some demos will support raising the h-1b up from 65,000 per year Michael Murray vp human resources said that microsoft hired 1707 last year, only 3 per campus if cap expires in june , as many as 80 foreign engineers might not be hired \clip\98\07\mignews.txt MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 5, No. 4 April, 1998 Current and back issues may be accessed via Internet on the Migration News Home Page--http://migration.ucdavis.edu "Many of the critical stories repeated charges made most forcefully by University of California at Davis Computer Science Professor Norm Matloff, who said, for example, that many US employers overspecify job requirements so that the only person who qualifies is the H-1B foreigner the company wants to hire, that US companies are reluctant to hire and retrain older US engineers and programmers, and that many US companies do little to retain US workers." Senator Spencer Abraham (R-MI), chair of the Senate immigration subcommittee, on March 2, 1998 introduced legislation that would increase the number of temporary H-1B visas by 25,000, from the current 65,000 to about 90,000 a year, and eventually to 115,000 a year (S 1723). The 10,000 physical therapists and other health workers currently admitted as H-1B workers would be shifted to a new nonimmigrant visa category, and the H-1B program would be permitted to "borrow" unused slots from the H-2B program. The bill can be viewed at http://thomas.loc.gov/r105/r105s06mr8.html \clip\98\06\bwimm.txt From: dchiang@juno.com Updated Mar. 5, 1998 by Businessweek Magazine Copyright 1998, by The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All rights reserved. COMMENTARY: HIGH-TECH TALENT: DON'T BOLT THE GOLDEN DOOR "The Foreign Workers Debate" David North Immigration Review Fall/winter 1996-97 \images\972\113097\p04.tif h-1 does little to protect American workers. When the H-1B is used to bring in whole bunches of workers, it may replace entire departments, and cause more harm. (Author of Soothing the Establishment, critical of foreign engineers) \clip\97\28\h1b.txt Visa cap limits high-tech workforce Industry to press for more skilled workers San Jose Mercury News, Friday, November 21, 1997 BY MIRANDA EWELL Mercury News Staff Writer At the end of August, a promising Stanford Ph.D. from Asia with expertise in compound semiconductors was forced to leave the payroll at Hewlett-Packard Co.'s optoelectronics division in San Jose because the national visa allotment for skilled foreign workers had run out. EE TIMES: SKILLED IMMIGRATION NEARLY A DEAD ISSUE \clip\97\03\immdeba.txt Electrical Engineering Times February 03, 1997, Issue: 939 Section: The Profession New political climate moderates legal-admissions issues -- Immigration debate unlikely to reignite in '97 http://www.techweb.com/se/techsearch.cgi?action=view&VdkVgwKey=%2E%2E%2F%2E%2E%2Fdata%2F1996%5F%5F%5B40094%5D&DocOffset=1&DocsFound=3&QueryZip=%3CMany%3E%27immigration%27&SourceQueryZip=%3CAnd%3E%28%3CAnd%3E%28%28%27EET%27%29+%3CIn%3E+%60pub%60%29%2C+issuedate+%3E%3D+%601%2F1%2F1997%60%2C+issuedate+%3C%3D+%6012%2F31%2F1997%60%29&Collection=coll1996&Collection=tw%5Fcurrent&Collection=tw%5Fdaily&ViewTemplate=cmpview%2Ehts&SearchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Etechweb%2Ecom%2Fse%2Ftechsearch%2Ecgi%3FQueryZip%3D%253CMany%253E%2527immigration%2527%26ResultTemplate%3Dcmp%252Ehts%26QueryText%3Dimmigration%26action%3DFilterSearch%26Collection%3Dcoll1996%26Collection%3Dtw%255Fcurrent%26Collection%3Dtw%255Fdaily%26ViewTemplate%3Dcmpview%252Ehts%26ResultStart%3D1%26ResultCount%3D10&&publication=EET Now with unemployment at historic low levels, the climate has changed, half of those surveyed saw no need to cut visas, and nobody is paying attention to guys like Matloff who say that quality and profits would improve if only we kept more immigrants out. By Robert Bellinger Washington - A booming economy, new legislation and a changed political climate appear to have taken some of the wind out of the sails of the immigration issue. \clip\96\03\visalimt.txt The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition -- August 28, 1996 U.S. Reaches the Limit On Special-Work Visas By a WALL STREET JOURNAL Staff Reporter. H-1 visas have reached the official 65,000 worker limit. \clip\96\03\immrecru.txt Immigrants Recruited to U.S. Not Uncommon By Lili Wright and Shawn Foster, The Salt Lake Tribune 8/26/96 Immigrant professionals are recruited to work in Utah. Nationwide, 123,291 foreign workers were wooed to this country in 1994 for their professional expertise. That same year in Utah, 569 workers were recruited from around the globe. In all, they represent roughly 15 percent of all legal immigrants to the United States during that year. \priv\96\13\oddvisa.txt AN ODD JOURNEY TO VISA SURETY The Associated Press, April 30, 1996 By Mitchell Landsberg, Associated Press. Indian programmers with H-1 visas go to Mexico to get their re-entry visas stamped so they can re-enter when they leave the U.S. without worrying about being stranded if they are not approved. \priv\96\08\forwork.txt - AP 15 Apr 96 1:39 EDT V0355 Foreign Worker Plan Derided Labor department finds temporary skilled worker program is a "sham", 99% of those hired are aliens, claims costs jobs and lowers wages. 570,000 admitted 1992 to 1994. Clinton ad wants to charge fees to import workers for training. \priv\96\01\abusemar.txt 06/03/93 ABUSE MARS SKILLED-WORKER PROGRAM \doc\96\01\msnewpeo.txt - List of new microsoft employees shows about 38% are immigrants of some form or another. \priv\95\17\h1visa.txt But Moore also admitted that Intel and many other Silicon Valley companies who use the program don't abide by the spirit of the law, which is to temporarily fill vital jobs with foreign-born workers until a U.S. citizen can be hired. Moore said almost all of Intel's H-1B visa holders use them as a stopgap credential until the worker can acquire permanent U.S. work papers \priv\95\14\indilayf.txt - Fannie Mae, the Federal National Mortgaage Association, was in the process of replacing between 10 and 12 of its American software consultants with programmers from India working in the U.S. on H1B visas at much lower wages than us workers. Reich calls it a "sham" @@engineer [[ban \priv\96\03\buchimm.txt Buchanan proposes to ban hiring of foreign engineering students for 5 years. [[degree Data Brief Nov, 14, 1995 National Science Foundation Immigrants are 23% of US Residents with Doctorates 40.3% of Engineering Doctorates, 28.4% of Masters, 13.9 Bachelor Electrical - 39.1/28.6/14.8 Computer Science 39.4/29/13.6 All S&E 23.0/18/9.8 Non Sci/Eng 12.4 7.7 6.8 Source: NSF/SRS National Survey of College Graduates, 1993 Note: Norm Matloff is the proponent who says we don't need any graduate education, and therefore don't need any immigrants. \priv\95\19\immgrad.txt - original study announcement [[employment numbers 642,000 electrical engineers, 1 million in software http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970512S0095 \clip\97\15\plateau.txt EE Times May 12, 1997, Issue: 953 EE employment plateau? By Robert Bellinger Union, N.H. - First-quarter employment for EEs hit 642,000. Seems like a cause for celebration, but analyst Robert Rivers isn't breaking out the champagne. [[general immigration.engineer immigration.education.reduce immigration.protection BEST COMPUTER SCIENCE PEOPLE ARE ACROSS THE GLOBE \clip\97\15\compimm.txt THE MELTING POT IN AMERICA'S LABS (int'l edition) Business Week 6/23/97 Walk through America's best computer laboratories. As the BUSINESS WEEK Special Report shows, most of the world's top computer labs are in America, but top scientists come from all over the globe (page 43). IF IMMIGRANTS ARE SO CHEAP AND UNPRODUCTIVE, WHY DOES MICROSOFT SPEND SO MUCH AND WHY DOES MS PRODUCE 2X LOTUS PER DEVELOPMENT DOLLAR? \DOC\WEB\97\02\intelgath.txt "Intelligence Gathering" Contract Professional Jan 1997 p. 45: review of "The Microsoft Way: The Real Story of How the Company Outsmarts Its Competition" By Randall E. Stross Addison Wesley, $25 \priv\96\04\immgood.txt - Kemp / Bennett says we need more, not fewer skilled immigrants \priv\96\03\ieeeusa.txt - Statement of IEEE-USA cites record unemployment, but it is no longer the case. \priv\96\02\estrada2.txt - complete text of article \doc\96\01\caseimpr.txt "Case for importing foreign labor simply doesn't compute" Seattle Post Intelligencer Jan 15, 1996 p. a9 Richard Estrada (Dallas Morning News). Quotes Matloff data on $7,000 Silicon Valley wage deficit, 1990 immigration increase based on alleged labor shortage. d:\priv\96\01\shormyth.htm 06/03/93 HIGH-TECH WORKERS BITTER OVER SHORTAGES 'MYTH' Microsoft cites half of cs doctorates are foreign born. Natural Scientists increased by 33% from 1980 to 1990 \doc\96\01\chanimm.wk1 Table 2.3 Changes in the Number of Natural Scientists: 1980 to 1990 Pct Characteristic 1980 1990 Change Change Pct of Change Overall: Male 246,934 300,573 53,639 21.7% Female 60,361 108,102 47,741 79.1% Overall Total 307,295 408,675 101,380 33.0% 100.0% Non-Hispanic Whites: Male 226,582 262,247 35,665 15.7% Female 51,439 87,827 36,388 70.7% Total N-H White 278,021 350,074 72,053 25.9% 71.1% Blacks: Male 7,755 10,686 2,931 37.8% Female 3,751 6,435 2,684 71.6% Total Black 11,506 17,121 5,615 48.8% 5.5% Asian/Pacific Islanders: Male 10,100 17,955 7,855 77.8% Female 4,345 9,328 4,983 114.7% Total Asian/ P-I 14,445 27,283 12,838 88.9% 12.7% Hispanic: Male 5,075 8,318 3,243 63.9% Female 1,843 3,991 2,148 116.5% Total Hispanic 6,918 12,309 5,391 77.9% 5.3% Source: Census data analyzed in "Foreign Born Scientists Engineers and Mathematicians in the United States" Center for Immigration Studies, Washington DC 1995 \priv\96\01\starsear.doc p. 6 "Star Search" THE NEW REPUBLIC JANUARY 22, 1996. Why work so hard to keep out talented and productive people with restrictions on immigrant engineers? \doc\95\14\mathsci.txt Immigrant Engineers and Scientists are More Educated, Better Paid, Have More Skilled Persons Per Population, and Have Better SAT Math Scores than White Natives, Data in Anti-Immigrant CIS study shows. Source: US Census data analysis by "Foreign-Born Scientists, Engineers and Mathematicians in the United States" Oct 1995 by the Center for Immigration Studies (Wash DC) Ranked by Participation per 100,000 - Chinese and Indians top the list at 3-4 times Whites Foreign blacks nearly the same rate as whites. Number Per 100k Index Native Indian 201 2924 4.20 For Indian 10,259 2700 3.87 Native Chinese 4,015 2651 3.80 For Chinese 16,012 2345 3.36 Native Korean 296 1578 2.26 For Japanese 1,503 1139 1.63 Native Japanese 1,950 1128 1.62 For NHWhite 29,370 922 1.32 Native NHWhite 645,500 697 1.00 Native Filipino 928 656 -1.06 For Filipino 3,942 650 -1.07 For Korean 1,982 624 -1.12 Native Cuban 560 620 -1.12 For Black 4,683 554 -1.26 Native Black 45,827 378 -1.84 For Cuban 1,571 326 -2.14 Native Mexican 8,834 283 -2.46 Native Other His 8,542 241 -2.89 For Other His 3,878 241 -2.89 For Mexican 1,180 48 -14.52 Ranked by Salary Almost every Asian and European immigrant group is paid higher than natives, even with a a larger proportion of young persons Note that native blacks are paid within 12% of native white salary even without correcting for job skills, education, or experience Median Age Income Index Under 30 Index For Japanese $41,456 1.12 59.9% -1.27 For Chinese $39,691 1.08 52.2% -1.11 For Indian $39,370 1.07 59.0% -1.25 For NHWhite $38,827 1.05 44.8% 1.05 Native Chinese $38,525 1.04 59.2% -1.25 For Korean $38,251 1.04 52.6% -1.11 For Cuban $36,951 1.00 50.5% -1.07 Native NHWhite $36,920 1.00 47.2% 1.00 Native Japanese $36,869 -1.00 51.1% -1.08 Native Filipino $35,276 -1.05 51.9% -1.10 For Filipino $35,070 -1.05 42.2% 1.12 Native Mexican $33,839 -1.09 56.2% -1.19 For Other His $33,440 -1.10 54.3% -1.15 For Black $33,252 -1.11 52.7% -1.12 Native Black $33,185 -1.11 48.8% -1.03 Native Other His $32,979 -1.12 57.7% -1.22 For Mexican $21,923 -1.68 58.5% -1.24 Ranked by College Education Every immigrant group except for Cubans is better educated than the native White population College+ For Indian 65.2% For Chinese 61.4% For NHWhite 35.2% For Korean 34.8% Native Indian 33.3% For Black 29.6% For Japanese 27.5% Native Korean 27.3% Native Chinese 27.2% Native Japanese 23.9% For Mexican 23.8% For Filipino 21.5% For Other His 21.0% Native Other His 17.4% -------------------------Native White ------------------------ Native NHWhite 16.8% Native Cuban 14.3% Native Filipino 13.3% For Cuban 11.8% Native Black 10.1% Native Mexican 9.4% Immigrants and Foreign Students Have Higher SAT Math Scores 1995 Scholastic Aptitude Test Breakdown by Ethnicity Data from the College Board Data Entry and Analysis by Arthur Hu White Black Language p.6 pct verb math pct verb math Citizen 98 449 498 93 357 387 Perm Res/ Refu 1 415 510 4 341 382 Citz of Other 1 424 541 3 374 433 Not Citizen 2 7 Hispanic Asian pct verb math pct verb math Citizen 88 383 430 60 452 539 Perm Res/ Refu 9 332 399 24 364 514 Citz of Other 3 334 420 15 384 579 Not Citizen 12 39 Rank by SAT Math Score 579 Asian Citizen of Other Nation 541 White Citizen of Other Nation ------Foreigners On Top--------------- 539 Asian Citizen 498 White Citizen 430 Hispanic Citizen 420 Hispanic Citizen of Other Nation 374 Black Citizen of Other Nation 357 Black Citizen Notes - Asian citizen V452 better in verbal than White V449, thus native Asians have the highest SAT scores, individually, or combined compared to any other US citizen group, contrary to notions of racial verbal inferiority Asian Perm Res V364 is comparable to Black V356 and Hisp V376, but Math M514 is still better than White Citizen M498 - Asian citizens of foreign countries are better in math and verbals than Perm Res. They are better in math than Citizens (but citizens > white too) White foreigners are better than Asian citizens, contrary to notions of Asian racial math superiority. Nearly 40% of Asians not citizens, highest of any SAT group Only Hispanic foreigners get worse scores than US citizens. \doc\95\14\hirefor.txt "Hiring foreign workers: A two-edged sword" SPI Oct 4, 1995 - Commisioner Richard Estrada, and editor with the Dallas Morning News, argues hiring too many foreigners reduces the pressure to train Americans in math and science. Bruce Ramsey observes that Microsoft needs 1,200 people NOW. - Rep Barabara Jordan rejects protectionism for highly skilled specialized workers. They don't need to be protected. \priv\95\17\techshor.txt Survey uncovers technical shortages -- In apparent contradiction, businesses lay off 300,000+ so far in '95 Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Oct 16, 1995 \doc\95\14\cisstudy.txt - David Chiang disputes CIS Study in EE Times \priv\95\17\eetimmg.txt contains multiple articles: 1>> Study: immigration hurts minorities Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Nov 6, 1995, Score: 692, Bytes: 6436 2>> Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Apr 3, 1995, Foreign engineers By Bob Bellinger 3>> Alien EEs defended by execs Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Oct 2, 1995, 4>> 'Act now' on immigration, Pace told Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Sep 11, 1995 5>> Reich backs tighter rules for temp visas Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Oct 9, 1995 6>> CALLS U.S. 'TOO DEPENDENT' ON FOREIGN ENGINEERS -- IEEE warns on use of aliens Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Mar 6, 1995, 7>> End immigration? No; limit it Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Oct 30, 1995 8>> It's too late to cry about labor shortage Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Nov 6, 1995 9>> IEEE-USA urges trimming admissions Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Nov 6, 1995, 10>> EE employment on rise Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Oct 16, 1995 11>> LOOPHOLES NARROWED ON IMPORTING ENGINEERS -- H-1B visa rules tightened Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Jan 23, 1995 12>> Open the gates Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Oct 9, 1995 1>> Study: immigration hurts minorities Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Nov 6, 1995, Score: 692, Bytes: 6436 \priv\95\17\simpbad.txt - why simpson bill would be bad The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) joined today with other major business groups in strongly opposing Senator Alan Simpson's (R-WY) bill S. 1394, to restrict severely legal business immigration. \priv\95\15\unzimm.txt Ron Unz says Silicon Valley needs less immigration and work restrictions \priv\95\15\svreport.htm \priv\95\15\debimm2.doc - Debugging Immigration National Review Oct 9, 1995 p. 28 Norm Matloff - says we don't need any more immigrant engineers, they don't innovate, increase unemployment and lower wages. \priv\95\14\matmove.txt - Matloff says moving jobs offshore doesn't equal jobs that will go away without immigrants \priv\95\14\pimmbill.txt - employer must certify that they did not lay off, or pay 110% of previous wage, fgm is illegal? \priv\95\14\immprof.txt Chiang: Once again, the entire Asian-American population (including all East Asian ethnic groups) constitutes only 3% of the U.S. population according to the 1993 Census; Asian skilled immigrants are even a much smaller percentage of U.S. population and Gross National Product (GNP). However, Asian Americans do have a high percentage in Science and Engineering areas. \priv\95\14\immprof.txt Study: Immigrants Fuel Surplus of Engineers and Scientists WASHINGTON (Oct. 17, 1995) Large-scale immigration of engineering and science professionals may be allowing our society to relax efforts to attract underrepresented segments of the population. It also has helped drive overproduction of PhDs in these fields and growing unemployment and underemployment in these professions. softpac: http://www.infoark.com/softpac/govrelations \priv\95\14\impol.txt Softpac: Sen. Simpson would require employers to pay their immigrant workers 110% of the U.S. prevailing wage for the occupation in which the immigrant is working, and also require employers to pay a fee equal to 30% of the immigrant's first year's salary into a fund dedicated to training American workers. \priv\95\14\impol.txt HR2202 Bill: Under the proposed bill, employers sponsoring and hiring skilled Asian-American immigrants must pay 5% higher wages than those prevailing plus a substantial surcharge tax. softpac: There is no 5% salary premium, nor a one time surcharge in the Smith bill (HR2202). A copy of the bill is easily enough obtained via world wide web at http://thomas.loc.gov c:\priv\95\07\aliennat.txt - Alien Nation book - we don't need more immigrants, or skilled engineers \doc\95\07\forsci.txt - press release on <> by David S. North, says foreigners lower wages and exploit poorly paid workers, diminish opportunities for women and blacks. \priv\95\12\skillimm.txt \doc\95\11\hireabro.txt 5% of Microsoft hires are foreign nationals. Using foreign labor to lower costs is "abuse" d:\priv\95\08\forengin.txt - writer says Americans must reserve jobs for Americans. \priv\95\07\immengr.txt - book on immgrant engineers, claims immigrants are actually paid more than natives when correcting for other factors doc935:immgeng.xls - immigrant engineers make equal or more, >50% asian @@english preference \doc\96\03\imment.txt April 1996, No. 4-96 Are Immigration Preferences for English-Speakers Racist? [As many as 1.9 billion people, one-third of humanity, have some knowledge of the English language, and most of these people are non-whites in developing countries. Therefore, claims that English-language preferences or requirements for immigration to the United States would be racially discriminatory are unfounded.] Center for Immigration Studies 1815 H St. N.W., Suite 1010, Washington, DC 20006 (202) 466-8185 (phone); (202) 466-8076 (fax); msk@cis.org full text \priv\96\08\immeng.txt @@entrepeneur %%Silicon Valley \clip\96\02\asiatop.txt Date: Sun, 11 Aug 1996 06:40:53 -0400 Asians rising to the top By Miranda Ewell Mercury News Staff Writer Immigrant entrepreneurs: Kenneth Fong/ Clontech Laboratories Inc., a Palo Alto biotechnology firm; David Lam, Chinese-born founder of Lam Research Corp. and Expert Edge; Chong-Moon Lee, Korean-born co-founder of Diamond Multimedia Systems Inc. Wilfred Corrigan, British-born founder of LSI Logic Corp.; Philippe Kahn of France, Borland International Inc Vinod Khosla, Indian-born co-founder of Sun Microsystems Inc. %%Cadence From Norm Matloff who says that Chinese don't create jobs or do anything useful: Avant! is a Chinese company, and Cadence started out as one. We're not talking about white bosses here. \clip\97\04\avant.txt Business Week (web) Updated May 8, 1997 by bwwebmaster A NEST OF SOFTWARE SPIES? %%Dynalab \clip\96\01\asiasurf.txt Dynalab of Santa Clara Ca has developed a system that lets US web browsers display any of 4 Asian languages. %%Intel Most point to Intel Chairman Andrew Grove and Intel's high percentage of immigrant employees as proof of the importance of immigrants. Norman Matloff dismisses the importance of Intel as "damaging to high tech" because the 8086 used an inelegant segmented addressing scheme (which greatly lowered the cost compared to a true 32 bit architecture normally needed to address more than 64k of memory). \priv\96b\06\intldupo.htm Intel makes 75% of all microprocessors in the world, no competitor has more than a single digit share. Microprocessor worlwide market share, 1996 X86 92.8% Intel, Amd Cyrix PowerPC 3.3% IBM, Motorola MIPS 2.1% Toshiba, NKK, NEC SPARC 1.2% Texas Instruments, Fujitsu, Sun 68000 0.4% Motorola Alpha 0.1% Digital Data: Semico Research Corp Business Week April 28, 1997 %%Kentucky Fried Chicken \doc\96\03\kfcking.txt "Chicken and Burgers Create Hot New Class: Powerful Franchisees: They Turn Stores Around And Then Shop for More" Wall Street Journal May 21, 1996 p. A1 An Indian college dropout who started sweeping the floors at a KFC, got promoted to manager after his pals skipped out, and now runs a huge franchise empire by out-managing the average mom and pop manager, and greatly boosting productivity. %%Kingston Technology \clip\96\02\kingston.txt AP Aug 15 1996 Chinese Immigrants Sell Kingston Technology Softbank Corp., Japan's largest software distributor and a worldwide publisher of computer journals, on Thursday announced plans to buy an 80 percent stake in Kingston Technology Corp., the leading U.S. computer memory board maker, for $1.5 billion. Founded in Irvine CA by two chinese immigrants, John Tu and David Sun. \clip\97\11\tu.txt Immigrants Tell Their Successes The Associated Press, Tuesday, April 15, 1997 By CASSANDRA BURRELL Associated Press Writer Kingston Technology President John Tu and Adrian Gaspar, founder of the accounting firm Adrian A. Gaspar & Co., held an audience spellbound as they told of their successes and failures after they decided to come to the United States. "Losing Big, Winning Bigger" Asian Week April 25, 1997 p. 10 F050997 %%Paint Balls \priv\96b\08\painball.txt Chinese Immigrant revolutionzes paint balls with tracer feature. \priv\96b\06\mo.txt Epic Design co-founder %%Toytown CHARLES WOO IMMG'T FROM HONG KONG BUILDS LA TOYTOWN \clip\97\20\toytown.txt From: dchiang@juno.com c Copyright 1997 The Economist Newspaper Limited. All Rights Reserve The puppet-master of toytown "Welcome to toytown. Over the past decade this desolate area has given birth to about 500 toy companies, which together employ more than 6,000 people and have sales of over $1 billion a year. " @@environment \clip\97\28\greenimm.txt Reducing greenhouse gases: the vital immigration angle San Diego Union-Tribune, November 28, 1997 Steven A. Camarota CAMAROTA is a resident Scholar at the Center for Immigration Studies, a think tank in Washington, D.C., that examines the impact of immigration on the United States. [immigration harms US efforts to reduce emmisions] \priv\96\12\envprog.txt "EPA regulatory record: Victories to celebrate and failures to lament" Seattle Post Intelligencer April 21, 1996 p. E1 By BONNER R. COHEN c 1995 The Earth Times "Americans live in an environment infinitely cleaner than it was only a few decades ago." Air-pollution emissions in the United States are lower than they were in 1940s or 1960s. Lead emissions have been practically eliminated. Water quality has improved significantly since the 1960s. There are more forest areas in the United States than at any time since the 1920s. Unsightly garbage dumps have been replaced by landfills, complete with sophisticated liquid and gas collection and treatment systems. \priv\95\17\immenvir.txt Los Angeles Times Friday, November 3, 1995, Home Edition PERSPECTIVE ON IMMIGRATION The Case for Shutting the Door; Reform proposals are still too high; we don't need more new Americans beyond a replacement level of 200,000 a year. Brimlelow says in Alien Nation that it's a waste of time to implement clean up programs when we're adding people. In fact, it's\ a matter of quality, not quantity. A zillion people can emit less pollution than fewer people with no smog controls or waste treatment, and can take less real estate (a high rise handles more people than half a state full of nomadic Indians) http://www.arthurhu.com/index/immig.htm#engsalar [[engineering salary %%salary Only Lawyers and Doctors make more than EE's Electrical Engineering Times June 15, 1998 p. 159 EEs rank 6th on earnings list 1. Physicians $1,140 median weekly) $59,280 2. Lawyers $1,125 $58,500 3. Chemical Engineers $1,061 $55,172 4. Pharmacists $990 $51,480 5. Aerospace Engineers $997 $51,844 6. EEs $954 $49,608 7. Mechanical Engineers $925 8. Purchasing managers $900 9. Management analysts $875 10. Computer systems analysts and scientists. List of 25 highest paid occupations according to the Department of Labor Electrial Engineering Times Times 1997 Salary Survey http://techweb.cmp.com/eet/salarysurvey/salarysurvey.html $100K: getting closer http://techweb.cmp.com/eet/salarysurvey/salary/salary.html \clip\97\20\eetimes\over100\salary.html Electrical Engineering Times 1997 EE Times Worldwide Salary & Opinion Survey By ethnicity/ immigration status Salary Origin $79,400 Vietnam (*) $76,800 Hong Kong $74,400 India $74,000 Arab / Iran SW Asian $74,200 Chinese Heritage $67,400 Total $67,300 men $67,000 women $66,400 White $66,000 American-born $65,800 China $57,100 African American $57,100 Hispanic American ---------------------- * Sample less than 10 By education $82,200 PHD $81,200 Masters CS $74,100 MBA $71,800 MSEE $65,300 MA/MS $64,900 BSCS $64,700 BSEE By location $85,200 San Jose $74,400 Boston $72,500 Portland Ore $71,200 San Diego $66,250 Austin By experience --------------- 1 to <3 $43.7 3 to <6 $51.4 6 to <9 $63.4 9 to <12 $65.9 12 to <15 $71 15 to <20 $72.5 20 to <25 $76.7 +25 $75.5 "Most EEs have no problem with present immigration levels" http://techweb.cmp.com/eet/salarysurvey/opinion/opinion1.html \clip\97\20\eetimes\immok.txt [63% of engineers polled are OK, only 37% wanted to reduce immigration] poll of readers of EE Times MATLOFF SAYS THAT STARING IMMIGRANTS EARN LESS Norman Matloff's immigration report here is an excerpt from my long report: UCLA Asian American Studies professor Paul Ong, together with Evelyn Blumenberg, performed detailed studies on the 1990 Census data. After adjusting for a host of factors such as experience, education, English proficiency, and so on, they found that ``Recent immigrants in engineering earn about one-third less than their U.S.-born [Asian-American] counterparts...Foreign scientists and engineers may be willing to accept lower salaries in order to obtain full-time employment in the U.S., a prerequisite for permanent residency.'' (The State of Asian Pacific America, Paul Ong (ed.), LEAP Asian Pacific American Public Policy Institute and UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1994, p.179-180.) In the Electronic Engineering Times, July 18, 1994, Ong comments, ``Companies took advantage of immigrants.'' \doc\96\06\new1009.txt Source: Sept 30 1996 Electronic Engineering Times Survey, P78-79 By heritage, we get mixed results. Of course, many of the engineers are native U.S. citizens, whose families have been here for decades. Korean $71,300 Asian Indian: $68,800 Chinese: $68,300 Japanese $68,900 Whites: $64,700 Hispanic/Mexican $62,500 African American $61,700 Arab or Iranian $56,700 Vietnamese $53,600 Opponents of looser immigration policies for engineering students and graduates argue that immigrants "drive down salaries" by accepting lower salaries. It doesn't show up in our salary survey. In fact, most of the larger immigrant groups do better than native born Americans. \priv\96\12\audidrop.doc 146 April 29, 1996 Electronic Engineering Times "Audit: drop foreign-labor programs" Summary: Empower America study finds foreign-born with masters degrees earn more than the native born, real wages for engineers are up 43% from 1975 to 1995 vs. 12.6 percent decline for other workers. Inspector general believes H-1 and LCA programs do not protect American workers. Foreign-Born Earn More Than Native Born Median salaries of US recipients of MS degrees in sci and engineering Years since Foreign- Native-born degree born 1 to 5 $41,400 $40,300 6 to 10 $48,000 $47,900 11 to 5 $52,000 $50,000 16 to 20 $56,000 $52,000 21 or more $55,000 $58,200 Source: National Science Foundation Stuart Anderson, author of a Republican-funded study titled "Employment-Based Immigration and High Technology," counters IEEE-USA claims that member surveys show that inflation-adjusted salaries for electronic engineers have been on the decline or static over the past 20 years. Engineering Workforce Commission surveys of engineering employers prove "the real median salary for engineers in electronics, electrical machinery and computers, seven years after receiving a BS, rose by 43.4 percent from 1975 to 1995." That compares with a decline of 12.6 percent in real wages for other private-sector workers - Some report that engineering salaries have been stagnant when compared with inflation, due largely to immigration Electrical Engineering Times 1995 EE Times Worldwide Salary & Opinion Survey. (http://techweb.cmp.com/techweb/eet/profession/f95/salary1.html) Relative to other professions, engineers are doing well. Nationally, hourly wages and benefits have been creeping ahead at about 1.5 percent when adjusted for inflation. Even figuring in a 3 percent inflation rate, the EE's typical 6.6 percent improvement outpaces the national average. A survey by Robert Half and Associates found that, by contrast, 80 percent of the professions it tracks lagged inflation. They survey tracks average salaries at $35,800 in 1983 vs. $63,700 in 1995 54% had a spouse salary, mean of $31,200. Added togther would make $94,400 or hte top quarter of income earners, or mean of $79,300 Technical director: $85,000 (up from $80,000) Principal engineer: $73,500 (up from $66,900). Project engineer: $60,600, (up from $57,400). Software engineer: $56,900 (up from $53,300). System engineer: $58,600 (up from $56,500). Member of the technical staff: $68,300 (same as 1994). Department head: $80,600 (down from $82,200). Software manager: $73,900 (up from $70,500). Titles with fewer than a dozen responses apiece: Vice president: $94,000. VP of engineering: $80,000. Research director: $76,900. Regions with high percentages of immigrants have highest salaries N. California $74,200 Pacific $69,900 S. California $67,900 New England $64,000 Mountain $61,800 Mid Atlantic $61,600 S. Atlantic $61,400 E. S. Cent $61,300 West S. Cent $60,800 Pay By Education PhD $77.8 MSEE $68.3 MSCS $66.4 MBA $67.9 BSEE $60.4 BSCS $60.1 OtherBS $57.7 Men $63.7 Women $63.3 \clip\97\14\salary.txt http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970519S0099 EE Times May 19, 1997, Issue: 954 IEEE survey: median income for engineers up fourth straight year -- Salary raises for EEs outpace the rate of inflation By Robert Bellinger IEEE nonstudent member Survey By degree --------------- PhD $82,708 MSEE $75,000 MA/MS $74,900 MBA $80,300 BSEE/CEE $63,000 By ethnic background: ---------------------- - White: $72,000; - African-American: $62,000; - Hispanic: $71,500; - Asian or Pacific Islander: $71,450. (Immigrants aren't paid significantly less, but blacks are) \doc\94\17\eesurvey.wk1 EE Times survey \priv\95\11\eetsurv.htm Immigrants Salaries (groups over 12) mean 1994 1995 United Kingdom $80,300 Germany $70,000 Taiwan $66,400 $72,800 India $61,600 $69,600 Hong Kong $65,500 China $53,000 $64,700 ------------------------------------------ overall $59,800 $63,700 ------------------------------------------ Vietnam $56,700 [[engineering shortage Sept 1, 1997 Electronic Engineering Times p. 82 survey of readers 48% in 1997 vs. 42% in 1996 said some projects had been delayed for lack of personell. 88% in Japan say there is a shortage of engineers What kind of technical personell are in short supply? ----------------------------------------------------- 35.8% Software or programmers 31% Sofware engineers 20% Design engineers 16% "experienced qualified personell" 11.8% Electrical Engineers 6.6% RF engineers 4.8% Programmers 3.7% ASIC engineers 3.3% Embedded engineers 3.3% Technicians \priv\95\19\EETimesE.txt - There's a serious shortage of engineers, low national IQ @@ethnic hiring network \doc\96\03\bestjob.txt "Best Job Search" Electrial Engineering Times May 20, 1996 F052196. University of Iowa researcher Sara Ryap surveyed 249 employers, and found that while newspaper ads were the most widely used method to recruit, informal referrals were the most useful because of pre-screening by known people. This is in contrast to UC Davis professor Norm Matloff who is critical of Chinese and other immigrants who use ethnic networks to hire persons, and claims that it hurts competitiveness and harms natives. http://www.arthurhu.com/immig.htm#\doc\96\03\bestjob.txt @@exclusion [Jeffrey Lesser writes:] Colleagues Many years ago I published a small article on the ways in which immigration law and citizenship decisions by the Supreme Court increasingly targeted Asians in the first half of the twentieth century. It may be of some interest to those following the race in immigration law and policy [was: First Indian in America/NZ legislation] string. J. Lesser "Always Outsiders: Asians, Naturalization and the Supreme Court." Amerasia Journal 12:1 (1985-1986), 83-100. Jeffrey Lesser Associate Professor of History Box 5491 Connecticut College 270 Mohegan Avenue New London, CT 06320 USA PHONE: 860/439-2229 FAX: 860/439-5332 EMAIL: jhles@conncoll.edu Ngai notes how race and nationality were used as basis for exclusion. Chinese were excluded regardless of nationality, others were based on geography. [Michael Shirreffs writes:] The US was less subtle in its 1924 Immigration Act. It effectively eliminated all immigration from east and south Asia based on perceived race, not country of origin. (The only exception to this was The Philippines which had "protectorate" status. Seen as a "loophole," later legislation prevented Filipino immigration.) My understanding is that the goal in basing the law on race, or interpreting it to be so, was in part to prevent Japanese from immigrating to the US from Brazil and Chinese from Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Michael Shirreffs Cal State Fullerton d:\doc\95\14\exclude.txt ckk8t@uva.pcmail.virginia.edu There are 9 broad grounds for exclusion under INA section 212(a): 1. Health related grounds 2. Crime related grounds 3. National security grounds 4. Public charge 5. Employment/Labor certification 6. Illegal entrants 7. Documentation requirements 8. Ineligibility for citizenship 9. Miscellaneous The admissions is a two-step process: (1) U.S. consular officer at visa application process, and (2) immigration officer at port of entry. You also have to consider numerous exceptions and waivers. @@Export Regulations PENTAGON HOLDS UP HIRING OF CHINESE IMMIGRANTS - HIGH TECH "EXPORT" AND SECURITY ISSUE \clip\97\15\brain.txt From: dchiang@juno.com 06/16/97 U.S. News & World Report Comment - more anti-Chinese discrimination? Pentagon slows the brain train Secretary Cohen takes up the issue of foreign high-tech workers As battle lines sharpen over U.S.-China policy, a dispute is building within the Clinton administration over high-tech exports. The latest conflict involves people: nearly 100 foreign scientists and engineers being wooed by the U.S. high-tech industry. Under 1994 regulations, such workers are treated as "deemed exports," meaning that what they learn on the job would be considered an export if they leave the United States. Consequently, companies must apply for an "export license" for foreign nationals they want to hire, much as they would to export a supercomputer. @@FAIR Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) \clip\97\18\fair.txt Economist Magazine July 19th - 25th 1997 So, does America want them or not? Hence Mr Stein's prescriptions. He would like financial requirements for sponsorship raised to 200% of the poverty level (the new 125% level would mean an "absurdly low" annual income of less than $10,000 for a single person or under $20,000 for a family of four); a five-year freeze on most immigration categories other than the spouses and minor children of American citizens; an annual limit of 50,000 (roughly half last year's number) for refugees; and a permanent reduction to 300,000 in the annual intake of migrants. Detroit Free Press op-ed by Taunton quotes Norman Matloff that we are "overproducing electrical engineers" \clip\97\15\tanton.htm FAIR home page \clip\96\02\fairconf.txt Los Angeles Times, August 11, 1996 Activists See Dire Immigration Threat Conference: At a meeting in San Diego, so-called 'restrictionists' say newcomers are damaging U.S. character. Opponents call the claims exaggerated. By PATRICK J. McDONNELL, Times Staff Writer \priv\95\15\immbackl.txt Pulling Up the Ladder The Anti-Immigrant Backlash The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) is directly tied to more virulent racists by the funding it has received from the Pioneer Fund. Between 1985 and 1989 the Pioneer Fund provided eight grants totaling $295,000 to FAIR, and three grants totaling $80,000 to the American Immigration Control Foundation. @@family apprehension \priv\95\15\taxrent.txt And, as the Border Patrol reports that it apprehends almost 100% of women and children trying to cross the border @@family preference Most immigrants are admitted on the basis of family preferences. Only 5% are admitted on the basis of skills that employers need. "fewer than 5 percent were admitted because of their job skills Most of the rest were allowed in because they were relatives of U.S. citizens or other immigrants or were refugees, and a quarter of the total were illegal immigrants" \CLIP\97\13\founder.txt Foundering In a Wave of Immigrants U.S. Prosperity Eludes Millions of Newcomers The Washington Post, Saturday, May 10 1997 By William Branigin and Pamela Constable Washington Post Staff Writers \priv\95\09\pullback.txt Pulling Back on Extended Families SFC 8/2/95 p. 1 @@Farmworker CANADA OFFERS VISA, AIRFARE, HOUSING, HEALTH CARE TO MEXICAN WORKERS Low Pay and Hard Work, Blessed by Immigration By ANTHONY DePALMA The New York Times, July 13, 1999 The person who brought him in was Jim Garrett, a Canadian farmer who had agreed to pay about half his air fare through a government program that imports thousands of seasonal laborers a year. Portugal and more than 6,000 other Mexican men and women will come to Canada this year and stay for up to eight months, getting paid $4.75 an hour They get free housing and free medical care, and they contribute to a pension that will be sent to them when they retire in Mexico. \clip\97\30\noshort.txt G.A.O. Sees No Worker Shortage, Dampening Efforts to Import Farm Labor The New York Times, December 28, 1997 By STEVEN GREENHOUSE [40% of farm workers illegal aliens] CIS Does U.S. Agriculture Really Need Immigrant Labor? Study claims that automation can reduce the need for immigrants and immigrants stifle innovation. \clip\97\16\migrwork.txt From: msk@us.net (Mark Krikorian) Giving Migrant Farm Workers a Share of Ownership and Profit The New York Times, June 26, 1997 By BARNABY J. FEDER " Conditions have improved for the nation's 1 million farm workers since Edward R. Murrow's shocking 1960 CBS documentary "Harvest of Shame." Most now get unemployment insurance, Social Security, and workers compensation coverage, clean water and access to toilets. After adjusting for inflation, though, wages have been declining for 20 years, as illegal immigrants continue to flood the labor market." From: msk@us.net (Mark Krikorian) The Department of Labor has published , by Richard Mines, Susan Gabbard and Anne Steirman. The report was prepared for the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform based on data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS). The report found that in 1995, 69 percent of farmworkers were foreign-born, a 10 percent increase from 1989. Virtually all immigrant farmworkers were Mexican-born in 1995, when they accounted for 65 percent of all farmworkers (up from 53 percent of all farmworkers in 1991). The proportion of illegal aliens rose from seven percent of all farmworkers in 1989 to 37 percent in 1995. The report should soon be available on the Web at: http://www.dol.gov/dol/asp/public/programs/agworker/naws.htm or from Rick Mines at RMines@dol.gov The U.S. Department of Agriculture has published , AER-748, by Jack L. Runyan (jrunyan@econ.ag.gov). A summary of the report is available at: http://www.econ.ag.gov/epubs/HTMLsum/AER748.htm The report uses data from the 1992 Census of Agriculture as well as the 1994 Current Population Survey. With regard to immigrants, the report finds that about 34 percent of farmworkers are born abroad. Ninety-six percent of the 260,000 immigrant farmworkers were Hispanic and 74 percent had less than nine years of education (among all farmworkers, only 36 percent had less than a ninth-grade education). To order copies of the report (listed at $9), call (800) 999-6779. @@financial aid \priv\95\15\finaid.txt - proposal to end financial aid for immigrants David Chiang counters North study 2/98 is a new study by immigration researcher David North, supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Contrary to the claims of advocacy groups that foreign students boost the U.S. balance of payments, the study found that 85 to 90 percent of the funding used to finance the doctoral degrees of foreign students comes from U.S. sources. In addition, reliance on U.S. funding increased as the students stayed in the U.S.; partial overseas funding in the first year of study often was replaced with full U.S. funding in subsequent years. The study is based on in-depth interviews with 92 Ph.D. candidates from 15 different departments on 14 campuses across the country. To avoid overstating the U.S. contribution, the funding examined included only tuition and stipends (excluding hidden subsidies from grants, endowments or tax sources). Contact: David North 3113 N. Kensington St. Arlington, VA 22207 fax: (703) 241-1724 @@Flight (white / native flight) Washington Post Nov 11, 1998 \clip\98\16\miami.txt [Myth of the Melting Pot] America's Racial and Ethnic Divides ------------------- A White Migration North From Miami NATIVE FLIGHT IS FROM UNEMPLOYMENT AND POPULATION, NOT IMMIGRANTS "Flight From The Big Cities" Business Week May 5, 1997 p. 30 f052797 Regional Financial Associates in West Chester PA finds that most native flight is away from cities with big populations and high unemployment, cities with a lot of immigrants actually see a slight inflow of natives. It is wrong to say that immigrants chase away more desireable natives. @@food stamps Food stamps once did not consider immigration status, but now even legal immigrants will lose food stamps if they are not citizens. \clip\97\19\foodstam.txt Legal immigrants lose food stamps Welfare reform provision about to take effect August 21, 1997 From Correspondent Jennifer Auther LOS ANGELES (CNN) -- Beginning in September, nearly a million legal immigrants in the United States will lose their food stamps -- assistance some of them have relied on for years. LA ORANGE COUNTIES TO EXTEND IMMIGRANT FOOD STAMPS BEYOND FED DEADLINE \clip\97\03\foodstam.txt Food-Stamp Cutoff for Legal Immigrants Will Be Delayed Los Angeles Times, February 4, 1997 Welfare: L.A., Orange counties plan strategies to extend benefits through August, despite federal deadline of April. "No state will be hit harder by the cutoffs than California, where an estimated 270,000 legal immigrants (8%) are expected to lose food assistance. In California, the federally financed program provides free food to 3.2 million poor people" \clip\96\04\foodstam.txt AP 19-Sep-1996 The Associated Press Legal Aliens Denied Food Stamps [in California] By DOUG WILLIS Associated Press Writer. State government stops accepting food stamp applications for legal residents and has plans to stop giving it to all legal immigrants with some exceptions. One says that citizenship only was supposed to make a differnence in voting and office, not aid benefits. @@for, @@pro Summary of reasons by Arthur Hu Immigrants will increase unemployment. Huddled masses need jobs. Data: 2 jobs were created for every immigrant 83-93 8.9 million immigrants compared to 19.7 million job. 1973-95 14.4 vs. 35 million new jobs. (INS, Business Week, Economist) Immigrants will lower wage levels in engineering and raise unemployment levels. - Engineering has highest pay (Census) highest increase in pay (EE Times) , lowest unemployment of college graduates, highest growth rate in jobs (Census) Immigrant engineers are paid $7000 or 15% less than natives. Source: Norm Matloff, Silicon Valley, equalizing for education. Data: CIS study and EE Times surveys shows immigrants are in fact more educated, and nationwide are paid 5-12% more than native whites. Black natives are paid less than native whites, however. 1 Immigrant engineers are of lower quality than Natives. Source: Norm Matloff. Fact - Immigrant Asians have the highest rates of college education, the highest SAT math scores, and the highest rate of participation in high tech of any ethnic group. - Asians found high tech companies with high paying jobs. Norm Matloff claims they do not hire natives and take jobs away, yet cites a Chinese friend who was laid off from a Chinese-founded firm, and then was re-hired by another Chiense-owned firm. - Greatest growth in jobs is at top and bottom - exactly matching immigrant profile - Center for Immigration studies claims Asians displace minority engineers, but black engineers increased by 66%, and black math and computer scientists increased by 85% despite 90% and 237% growth in Asians driven largely by immigration. - Unemployment is down to only 5% from over 10% in the 70s, despite adding 15 million immigrants 1973-1995 - Unemployment rate in Q2 1995 for CS is only 1.4%, EEs 1.7% - Layoffs are due to restructuring and competition, not immigration - Wages and living standards have been going up, accounting properly for inflation and technology - Asians have high rate of citizenship application, Asian citizens have lowest rate of welfare use. Hispanics have much lower rates of welfare use among the poor compared to Whites and Blacks. - Asians have smallest ratio of elderly, only 6% of SSI overall, and have low rates of social security, high percentage of young, healthy working age adults. - It is nonsense for matloff to hold that Chinese * do not innovate * did not make any important contributions * do not run any important companies * are not needed as employees - Matloff claims that things like have more relevant experience, skills, more education, and lower wages, and other things that "do not matter" only exist as excuses to prefer immigrants, and that any programmer can be productive in MS-windows in a matter of weeks. Claim: Environmental problems are caused by overpopulation which can be stopped only by stopping population growth. Fact: Air and water pollution are down, forests are up, and real prices for all natural resources and proven reserves are up, not down from the 1970s. Source: \priv\96\12\envprog.txt "EPA regulatory record: Victories to celebrate and failures to lament" Seattle Post Intelligencer April 21, 1996 p. E1 By BONNER R. COHEN c 1995 The Earth Times "Americans live in an environment infinitely cleaner than it was only a few decades ago." ================================================================== Armey says we could use even more immigrants. MOST AMERICANS EXCEPT THE LEAST SKILLED WIN FROM IMMIGRATION \clip\97\13\immben.txt New York Times May 18, 1997 Report Says Immigration Is Beneficial to the U.S. By ROBERT PEAR [W] ASHINGTON -- Immigration produces substantial economic benefits for the United States as a whole but slightly reduces the wages and job opportunities of low-skilled American workers, especially high school dropouts, the National Academy of Sciences said Saturday. Press Release http://www2.nas.edu/whatsnew/26fa.html c:\clip\97\13\press.htm Summary of report \clip\97\13\summ.htm http://www2.nas.edu/new/2152.html US News Summary: SKILLED ENGINEERS A DEFINITE PLUS, SHORTAGE OF PROGRAMMERS US News 5/26/97 The surprising new bottom line on immigration's costs and benefits BY PAUL GLASTRIS \clip\97\13\immpay.txt http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/970526/26immi.htm The alien payoff "There is little dispute about the economic value of highly skilled immigrants. Chinese engineers, Russian physicists, and Indian computer programmers earn high wages, increase the gross domestic product, and, to the extent their skills are not easily matched by those of native-born workers, increase America's per capita income. In other words, they make native-born workers marginally richer." FORBES: IMMIGRATION BRINGS BRAINPOWER, ENGINEERS DON'T CROWD OUT NATIVES BUT ADD TO US TALENT POOL url: http://www.forbes.com/forbes/110496/5811210a.htm clip: \clip\96\10\needimpt.txt magazine: Forbes Nov 4, 1996 A needed import: entrepreneurial spirit By Damon Darlin ----------------------------------------------------------------------- \doc\96\06\cityimm.txt , by Philip Peters, Senior Fellow Alexis de Tocqueville Institution, a high-immigration think tank in the Washington, D.C. area The report says five general tendencies were found in the responses: 1) Immigration's local impact is viewed as positive 2) No recommendation to cut llegal immigration 3) Immigration brings growing pains and adjustment problems 4) Immigrants fill economic niches 5) No desire to stop educating children of illegal immigrants Here is the Executive Summary: A survey of mayor and city officials in America's highest-immigration cities shows that these officials generally believe that immigration has had a positive impact. Combined "positive" and "very positive" responses were 77 percent. \priv\96b\05\sowlimm.txt Thomas sowell says imimgrants fill niches filled badly by natives and benefit not only themselves but create wealth in the host country as well. Thomas Sowell insists that the point of his latest book, "Migrations and Cultures" (Basic Books, 516 pages, $30), is "not to evaluate migration policies politically or morally," but his study will be useful to the pro-immigration side in the current debate. -------------------------------------------- \priv\96\17\abraham.txt Give Spencer Abraham a robe and a torch By Lori Montgomery Knight-Ridder Newspapers May 3, 1996 - Republican senator Spencer Abraham from Michigan performs a Washington miracle, and puts together a coalition which defeats reductions in legal immigration. -------------------------------------- \priv\96\08\immpct.txt - Today, annual immigration amounts to less than one-half percent of the workforce, compared to 2% in 1900 Business Week 4/22/96 "Huddled Masses Yearning for Your Job? by Aaron Bernstein" >> \priv\96\05\asimbols.doc \priv\96\05\asimbols.doc Asian Immigrants Help Bolster U.S. Economy, New Report Says New York Times March 31, 1996 By CAREY GOLDBERG SAN FRANCISCO, March 30 _ From Cambodian doughnut-shop owners to Chinese electronics engineers, Asian immigrants do far more good than harm to the nation's economy, a new report says. asian.immigration.for 4/2/96 \doc\96\03\taletwo.txt Hispanics have lowest rate of welfare among poor in CA H17 W50 B65 "A Tale of Two Migrations, One White, One Brown" Los Angeles Times 3/17/96 p. M6 New Hispanics as uneducated as Anglos in 50's, should be harnessed for economic growth and families. \priv\96\04\pushup.txt - classic study done in 1912 by Isaac Aaronovich Hourwich, IMMIGRATION AND LABOR. That study was based on the data collected by the US IMMIGRATION COMMISSION and Hourwich concluded that The immigrants 'pushed' the native born and older immigrant workers into higher paying and semi skilled jobs, while they occupied the lowest rungs of the job market. \priv\96\03\retiwork.doc New York Times article - retiring baby boomers will cause a labor shortage bidding entry level wages. \priv\96\01\gilder.doc/txt - Original article \doc\95\15\geniusa.txt "Geniuses From Abroad" George Gilder, Wall Street Journal Dec, 18, 1995 editorial. 1/3 of silicon valley engineers are immigrants. About one third of US geniuses are foreign born, another 20% of children of immigrants. One third of all US Nobel prize winners are foreign born. The living standard of the US might be 40% lower if not for immigrants. American born geniuses were behind Fairchild and Intel, but they were also helped by immigrants. Jean Hourni invented planar processing, Dov Frohmann-Benchkowski invented EEPROMs. Andrew Grove is the CEO, solved problems of MOS technology. LSI, IDT, Actel, Atmel, Xicor and Sun were all founded or led by immigrants. He argues the US is cutting off its best supply of genius talent. f121895 \priv\95\19\fairnot.txt - FAIR response to Cato Immigration study \priv\95\19\immgood.txt - Cato study shows immigrants make net contribution, don't threaten the environment. New study says immigrants contribute more than they take San Jose Mercury News 12/11/95 (Los Angeles Times) >>\priv\95\18\opprefm.txt Industry and civil rights groups oppose restricting immigration @@fraud \doc\96\04\frauplag.txt Fraud Plagues U.S. Programs That Swap Visas for Investments Wall Street Journal April 11, 1996 p. B1 Two program, the million dollar investor program, and the L-1 have problems with low usage, and setting up sham companies that don't really exist just to get into the U.S. F060696 @@gardeners \priv\95\14\impol.txt 48.7% of groundskeepers and gardeners in Chicago are immigrants Chicago Tribune Oct 12, 1995 @@garment workers New York Times June 3, 1996 After Raids on Illegal Garment Workers, It's Business as Usual Federal Offensive: New Enforcement Of Old Law Unenforceable Law: Arrested Workers Are Soon Back Owners' Alternative: Acting Illegally Or Going Under By CELIA W. DUGGER \priv\96\17\GARMRAID.HTM \priv\96\19\garmraid.txt Summary: Chinese factories are largely untouched, many Chinese workers are thought to be legal. 80 percent are Latino from Mexico or Ecuador. There is no evidence that legal Americans gain jobs from the raids, authoritities won't even guess. 86 factories were hit and 1,2228 were arrested. @@Gay Immigrants \clip\97\29\gayimm.txt Gay, HIV-positive immigrants seek asylum Some say increasingly successful effort invites flood of questionable claims The Dallas Morning News, December 22, 1997 By Pete Slover / The Dallas Morning News SAN FRANCISCO - Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning ... to openly express their sexual orientation? \clip\97\11\gayimm.txt Fighting for Their U.S. Lives New Law Gives Gay Illegal Immigrants Fewer Ways to Stop Deportation The Washington Post, Wednesday, April 23 1997 By Pamela Constable Washington Post Staff Writer "In recent years, the U.S. government has opened its doors to foreign-born homosexuals. In 1990, it repealed a longtime law barring them from immigrating; in 1994, it began allowing them to seek political asylum." @@Germany Does Germany fear diversity's powerful Force? Seattle Times Sept 27, 1998 p. A2 30% of Frankfurt is immigrant. 7 million total. Fear a menace to nation's identity, 52% think too many in poll, 10% extreme right support. Germany is only major Western nation that bases citizenship on bloodlines from 1913 imperial decree. 2 million Turks. 12% voted for parties in Frankfurt that would expel foreigners. @@GNP ECONOMY GROWTH DRIVEN BY IMMIGRATION \clip\97\12\econgrow.txt Los Angeles Times Thursday, May 1, 1997 5.6% [ANNUAL] Economic Growth Is Strongest Since 1987 \doc\95\14\japnalin.txt Japan grows faster than the US without Immigration Peter Brimelow Alien Nation p. 170 Alien % GNP Index 1955 1990 1955 1990 US 6 9 1.0 3.0 Japan 0.5 0.5 1.0 10.0 (But the US is the biggest economy in the world, even if it's not as big per person, many factors other than immigration are at play) @@graduate student >>\priv\95\19\gradstud.txt - Matloff on why foreign S&Es come to the US, to immigrate, not to get a degree. @@Greece \clip\97\20\immnews3.txt ATHENS, Sept 5 (Reuter) - Greece said on Friday it expected to grant legal status to almost half a million immigrant workers by this time next year in its effort to control a large illegal labour market. Illegal immigrants make up about five percent of Greece's 10 million population. @@guest worker \priv\95\19\guestwk.txt - Clinton opposed guest worker because of illegal immigration and lower wages for US farmworkers. @@health \priv\95\13\sowell95.txt - ADDING A DOSE OF CANDOR TO IMMIGRATION DISCUSSION by Thomas Sowell Seattle Times May 17, 1995 Where else will you learn that diseases that were virtually extinct in the United States - tuberculosis, leprosy, measles, cholera and malaria - have been re-introduced into this country by immigrants? (Brimelow book) @@health insurance http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/immi_022697.html \clip\97\06\immheal.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Wednesday, Feb. 26, 1997 Study: Latino children uninsured by San Jose Mercury News Nearly half of the urban Latino children eligible for government health coverage aren't receiving it because of their parents' immigrant status, says a study by the University of California at Los Angeles. \clip\97\05\healbene.txt Va. Spares Legal Immigrants From Benefits Cuts The Washington Post, Wednesday, February 19 1997 By Ellen Nakashima Washington Post Staff Writer http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/cb96-159.html Census bureau: In 1995, a higher proportion of the foreign-born population in the U.S. was without health insurance (32.5 percent), compared with the native-born population (13.6 percent). @@high tech High tech has the highest salaries, lowest unemployment, highest job growth of any field, yet it also has high percentages of immigrants, who are supposed to ruin all of these things. But they don't. %%against HI TECH SHORTAGE EXCUSE TO PROMOTE SCHOOL TO WORK, NTCM INVENTED MATH \clip\99\13\hitech.txt From: msk@cis.org (Mark Krikorian) [For CISNEWS subscribers: Four articles and an interview about the alleged shortage of information technology workers in the United States. All of these items refer to a new Department of Commerce report, "The Digital Work Force: Building InfoTech Skills at the Speed of Innovation," that is available on line at: http://www.ta.doc.gov/reports/itsw/Digital.pdf COMMERCE DEPT. SAYS U.S. WORKERS CAN FILL HIGH-TECH VACANCIES Communications Daily, July 1, 1999 Commerce Dept. announced initiatives Wed. to ensure that more Americans benefit from growing digital economy. ..officials worry that U.S. citizens lacking skills to fill high-tech jobs will be left behind in favor of skilled foreign workers... %%assemblers \clip\98\07\3com.txt tip by msk@cis.org; The Wall Street Journal, March 30, 1998, page 1 By TIMOTHY AEPPEL Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal MORTON GROVE, Ill. -- Draped from the ceiling in 3Com Corp.'s sprawling modem factory in this Chicago suburb is a sign of the times: 65 different national flags, each representing the origin of at least one person who has worked here since it opened 2 1/2 years ago. %%For http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?INW19990215S0056 \doc\web\99\03\frezza.txt Posted for discussion/education purposes only Internet Week February 15, 1999, Issue: 752 Give Us Your Nerds, Your Techies, Your Ph.Ds Bill Frezza "These people did not take jobs. They made jobs. And with a little capital behind them, they will make many more jobs. %%General "IEEE members salaries beat inflation" Electrical Engineering Times May 15, 1995 p. 103. Survey of 4,064 working members of IEEE society. Average 18 yrs experiene, 10.5 yrs with current employer, 43 yrs old. 86% native born, 8.3% naturalized citizens, 4.6% permanent resident alien, 0.7% H-1 visa, 0.3% other 200/5,800 are women, $6,500 gap, 7-9 yrs experience average, those with 10-14 years make more. Salary W 67,133 B65,000 H62,500, API 65,000 Average spouse income $20-$30,000 per year %%network \clip\98\06\immnet.txt Ethnic Network Helps Immigrants Rise to New Heights in Silicon Valley The Wall Street Journal, March 18, 1998 By DEAN TAKAHASHI %%general \clip\98\01\techhire.txt Foreign Legions: A U.S. Recruiter Goes Far Afield to Bring in Techies The Wall Street Journal, January 8, 1998, page 1 By JONATHAN KAUFMAN Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal %%Unemployment "EE unemployment takes leap" EE Times July 20, 1998 p. 121 Engineering Manpower newsletter. "even with the rise, the EE unemployment rate is only half the national average of 4.5 percent in June" EE's Have highest unemployment rate (but still half general rate) 0.8% 1Q 1998 2.2% 2Q 1998 1.6% Overall EE 2Q unemployment rate 2.2% EEs 1.6% Programmers 1.1% CS / System Analysts @@H-1B Visa \clip\98\10\morefor.txt http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/yr/mo/biztech/articles/25visas.html New York Times July 25, 1998 Congress Likely to Allow More Foreign Engineers By ROBERT PEAR WASHINGTON -- House and Senate Republican leaders reached agreement Friday on a bill to increase the number of foreign computer programmers, engineers and other skilled workers who can be admitted to the United States to fill job openings at high-technology companies. the annual limit on the number of visas for such workers, now 65,000, would rise to 115,000 over three years, an increase of 77 percent....would require a company to certify, before hiring a foreign worker, that it had tried to recruit a U.S. worker for the opening and that it had not laid off an American to hire the foreigner. Congressional aides said this requirement would not apply to big companies like Microsoft or Sun Microsystems Inc., where foreign workers perform important jobs but account for a small proportion of the work force. Percentage of visas by country 44% India 9% China 5% Britain 3% Philippines 3% Canada 2% Japan 2% Germany 2% Pakistan 2% France 28% Other \clip\98\10\immnews.xt MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 5, No. 7 July, 1998 Home Page--http://migration.ucdavis.edu most H-1B workers are hired by temporary staffing agencies--labor brokers--who lease them to US employers, and many H-1B workers seek out US employers to sponsor them for admission as immigrants. A San Diego Union-Tribune article on June 8, 1998 noted the sharp contrast between employer testimony and reality. Employer testimony emphasized wages of over $65,000 a year, but Tata Consultancy Services, the second-largest employer of H-1Bs, paid $35,000 to 13 Indian programmers with H-1B visas working for UCSD. Tata does not recruit or hire US programmers; indeed, most of the top 10 US requesters of H-1B workers have few or no US workers on staff. if companies say they want to hire more skilled foreign workers because those workers are cheaper, we should believe them--and increase the number of visas issued." The article can be viewed at: http://www.redherring.com/mag/issue56/toc.htm The top ten US firms and the number of H-1B workers they imported between October 1, 1997 and March 31, 1998 were: Mastech, 672; Tata Consultancy Services, 490; Sai Software Consultants, 224; Tata Infotech, 199; ComputerPeople, 184; Intel, 144; Comsys Technical Services and Syntel, 131 each; Quality Information Systems, 124; and Intelligroup, 116. In the first six months of FY98, 44 percent of H-1B visas were granted to people from India. STOP H-1S UNTIL QUOTAS FOR BLACKS ARE MET Blacks Ask For Clamp On Tech Group http://www.sfgate.com:80/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/06 /13/BU9833.DTL June 13, 1998 Julia Angwin San Francisco Chronicle "A coalition of black leaders asked the U.S. Department of Labor yesterday to consider prohibiting Silicon Valley companies that fail to hire enough blacks and Latinos from bringing in temporary foreign workers. The novel idea was part of a package of suggestions presented by the newly formed Coalition for Fair Employment in the Silicon Valley during a meeting with Department of Labor officials. The coalition met with the San Jose regional office that is responsible for enforcing affirmative action among government contractors. The meeting was sparked by a Chronicle investigation (``Digital Divide'') last month that showed blacks and Latinos are significantly underrepresented in Silicon Valley's leading firms, as compared with the Bay Area workforce overall. The investigation also found that many of the top technology firms had been cited by the Department of Labor for failing to actively recruit blacks and Latinos -- but most were not fined or penalized in any other way. ``It appeared to us (from The Chronicle articles) that the Labor Department wasn't aggressively dealing with the issue,'' said Henry Hutchins, president of the Bay Area Black MBAs and a member of the coalition." National Public Radio's program All Things Considered aired a long story last Tuesday 5/12 on the controversy over claims of a high-tech labor shortage and the H-1B visa issue. The web page describes the piece thus: http://www.npr.org/ramfiles/980512.atc.06.ram WA SENATORS APPROVE H-1 VISA INCREASE http://www.seattletimes.com/news/business/html98/immi_051998.html \clip\98\09\okbill.txt Seattle Times Company May 19, 1998 Senate OKs bill to lift visa limit by Rob Wells The Associated Press WASHINGTON - The Senate has agreed to expand a program to let U.S. businesses hire foreign computer programmers and other skilled workers to fill what business leaders describe as shortages of qualified workers. Kennedy says we need better training H-1 VISAS FINALLY RUN OUT IN 1997 \CLIP\97\21\MIGNEWS.TXT MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 10 October, 1997 http://migration.ucdavis.edu Many foreign computer programmers work in the US as nonimmigrants with H-1B visas. The number of H-1B visas is capped at 65,000 per year, although each H-1B can remain in the US for up to six years, so that 390,000 H-1Bs can be working in the US at any one time. In FY97, the INS ran out of H-1B visas in September. The US Commerce and Education departments in September 1997 issued a report that warned of a growing shortage of workers with advanced computer skills, and argued that, if not remedied, US economic growth may be slowed. The labor shortage "is increasing the cost of doing business throughout this country and reducing our global competitiveness and constraining our economic growth." [For CISNEWS subscribers: The report discussed below is entitled (GAO/HEHS-98-106R). Because it is correspondence (less formal than a full-blown ), it is not posted on the Internet. You may obtain a free hard copy by calling (202) 512-6000. -- Mark Krikorian] \clip\98\07\gao.txt Lack of Tech Workers Disputed Flaws Weaken Reports Claiming Shortage, GAO Critique Says The Washington Post, Monday, March 23, 1998; Page A02 By William Branigin Washington Post Staff Writer AFL-CIO OPPOSES MORE H-1 \clip\98\06\aflvisa.txt Labor Challenges High Tech Job Shortage Claims WASHINGTON, March 18 /PRNewswire/ -- The Department for Professional Employees (DPE), AFL-CIO today declared that allegations of major shortages 1997 Forbes 100 MANY OF HIGH TECH RICH ARE IMMIGRANTS, INDIANS AND CHINESE ARE 6-7X POPULATION, 6% of RICHEST \doc\web\clip\97\21\micrrich.txt The Seattle Times Company http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/tech_092297.html 12% are from Microsoft 4% vs. 0.7 Chinese = 5.7 times population 2% vs. 0.3 Indian = 6.7 times population Immigrant - at least 10% Tech News : Sept. 22, 1997 Technology's richest: 12 at Microsoft Associated Press NEW YORK - The boom in technology stocks is churning out millionaires by the scores as the industry continues to grant employees more stock options than any other, Forbes ASAP magazine says. MELTING POT OF GOLD IN SILICON VALLEY \clip\97\19\potgold.txt Updated Aug. 7, 1997 by bwwebmaster Business Week Web WHERE IMMIGRANTS FIND A MELTING POT OF GOLD Foreign-born entrepreneurs run high-tech legends and spawn hundreds of startups There as many as 100,000 immigrants in high tech, some estimates one in 3. There are 1,500 Asian American-owned tech companies in the Valley, according to a study by investment bankers Hambrecht & Quist and University of California at Berkeley's Annalee Saxenian, the top 30 have a market value of $25 billion. MALAYSIAN STARTS UP INTERNET GAME COMPANY \clip\97\18\malay.txt Malaysian Expats May Dream of Home, but Won't Move Back The Wall Street Journal, July 22, 1997 By CHEN MAY YEE Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal LOS ANGELES -- Silicon Valley is a "weed garden," asserts Shahril Ibrahim, high-technology whiz kid. By comparison, Malaysia -- Mr. Shahril's homeland -- is a well-tended plantation. And that's a problem -- for Malaysia. 1997 JOBLESS RATES AT RECORD LOWS, HIGH TECH EVEN LOWER \clip\97\11\emphigh.txt http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970421S0107 April 21, 1997, Issue: 950 Section: The Profession Employment levels stay high -- Jobless rates hit record lows in nine states, and are probably even lower for EEs "Engineers traditionally have much lower jobless rates than the general population, as witnessed by the March national unemployment rate of 5.2 percent, compared with 2 percent for all types of engineers. As reported in "The Workplace" (see April 14, page 103), Engineering Manpower newsletter estimates the jobless rate for EEs at 1.1 percent-essentially full employment." HIGH TECH NUMBER LARGEST EMPLOYER IN OREGON, COMPUTER ENGINEERS TO DOUBLE IN WA BY 2005 \clip\97\11\drivseat.txt EE Times http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970421S0092 April 21, 1997, Issue: 950 Section: The Profession EEs in driver's seat for jobs in the Northwest By Brian Santo Average high tech salary: Idaho $52,000 Oregon $44,000 In Washington, there were more than 10,000 computer engineers in 1995, rising to double that number by 2005. CUTTING OFF IMMIGRATION WILL STIFLE GROWTH OF WEALTH CREATION IN COMPUTERS AND DRUGS. High-tech growth is limited by growth in qualified employees. "Top five wealth creating industries" Fortune Dec 9, 1996 p. 112 Market Value Added, millions Drugs and Research $127,450 Computers, Software and Services $126,431 Coal, Oil and Gas $92,489 Telephone Companies $87,771 Conglomerates $82,391 p. 108: Red-hot computer networker Cisco systems is the most efficient wealth creator, its MVA was an impressive 12 times its total capital @@Hanson, Pauline Australia's equivalent to Norman Matloff does not hide her hatred of the Chinese and other racial minorities, proposes banning immigration of Asian parents who do not have pre-paid pensions. \clip\98\10\hanson.txt Scare Crusade Pulls in Votes In Australia By Kevin Sullivan The Washington Post, July 6, 1998, Page A1 CANBERRA, Australia -- Pauline Hanson walked onto a stage decorated with dozens of posters of herself wrapped in the Australian flag. A woman who has tended bar, run a fish-and-chips shop and "had her fair share of life's knocks," she looked out this recent evening at 160 other white, middle-class "ordinary, normal Australians," and gave them what they came to hear. \clip\98\10\ausasia.txt From: msk@cis.org (Mark Krikorian) Australia's Hanson Says Asian Immigration Figures Deceiving The Associated Press, July 1, 1998 One Nation immigration spokeswoman Robyn Spencer said the real annual immigration figures for Australia were 159,000, not the 85,000 quoted in government figures. 70% of Australia's migrant intake was Asian., Quoting a leading Canberra demographer, Dr. Charles Price, Hanson said Australia would be 27% Asian in 25 years. AUSTRALIA'S HANSON WANTS TO BAN CHINESE PARENTS WITHOUT PENSIONS \clip\98\10\austban.txt Australia's Hanson Supports Eventual Deportation of Refugees The Associated Press, July 1, 1998 CANBERRA (AP) -- Right-wing populist political leader Pauline Hanson unveiled her immigration policies Wednesday, saying refugees would be deported from Australia when "the troubles" in their homeland were over. One Nation has proposed a radical overhaul of the immigration system, with refugees denied the right to settle permanently, New Zealand entry slashed and parents banned if they cannot transfer pensions from abroad. @@Hispanic \clip\97\30\mexass.txt North of the Border, Down Mexico Way AMERICANS NO MORE? Can assimilation operate today as it did a century ago? Or is it going into reverse? National Review, December 31, 1997 by SCOTT MCCONNELL Mr. McConnell is a writer based in New York City. \clip\97\19\hisplaw.txt For Hispanic Lawmakers, Time to Take the Offensive The New York Times, August 25, 1997

@@Homeowner

CENSUS REPORTS IMMIG CITIZENS JUST AS LIKELY TO OWN THEIR HOMES http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/homeown.html \clip\97\20\homeown.txt Foreign-Born Citizens As Likely To Own Homes as Native-Born Census Bureau Finds

@@Housing

Immigrants can strain the housing market when they don't blink at shacking up in very small, very cheap subdivided housing. They also like in law units often frowned upon in sf, in nc they form 1/3 nre households, and buy up big new houses in silicon valley 1/3 NEW HOUSEHOLDS IN NC ARE IMMIGRANTS \clip\98\17\real.txt About 29 percent of the 687,000 new households formed in North Carolina since 1980 are headed by foreign-born immigrants, according to a University of North Carolina-Charlotte study. Fluent in Vietnamese, Thai and English, Courtney has been the first stop for many Asian and Hispanic immigrants seeking a tangible piece of the American Dream. These newcomers, along with others from countries such as Newcomers seek shelter: Immigrants change face of home buying in state By Robert Bell The Observer-Times (Fayetteville, N.C.), November 15, 1998 \clip\97\19\immhous.txt In Many New York Neighborhoods, Tensions Rise Over Immigrant Housing The New York Times, July 29, 1997 By DAN BARRY and MIRTA OJITO NEW YORK -- A prospective tenant is led into yet another of the human beehives found behind the pleasant facades of residential homes in Queens County. The first floor has been carved into five cubicles, the second into six. Some renovations are so recent that chunks of plaster litter the parquet floor, and wooden door frames have yet to be painted. >>d:\priv\95\18\ctwnhous.txt - Rueters says Chinese stage housing crisis in basements in NY Chinatown to qualify for public housing, was reduced by banning public housing for undocumented immigrants
@@Illegal Immigrants See illimm.htm doc91:hins doc935:insill.txt 3.2 million US, 1.28 million CA, 31% Mexican @@income comparison \doc\95\07\closdoor.txt "Don't Close Our 'Golden Door'" John Miller, Center for Equal Opportunity, Wash DC, Wall Street Journal May 25, 1995. The foreign born make more per-capita, $15,033 vs. $14,367, only 6% less as household $30,176 vs $28,314. Immigrants before 1980 earned $35,733 in household income, $19,423 per capita, 19% and 35% ahead of native California remains top 'cyberstate' EE Times June 1 1998 p. 93 Top 3 states in wages 1 Washington $66,000 2 New Jersey $58,900 3 California $57,900 SILICON VALLEY IMMIGRANTS MAKE MORE, MORE EDUCATED Asian US Born BS Degree 38.4% 20.3% Unemployed 5.6% 6.2% Manag/Prof 31.4% 26.8% PerCapInc $16,661 $14,367 MedFamInc $39,395 $39,508 BelowPov 16.2% 12.7% OnWelfare 10.7% 7.5% Taiwan India China Phil US BS+ 61.4 62.0 40.0 28.5 21.6 Eng-not well 11.1 4.6 23.1 7.4 0.9 not at all 2.7 1.5 11.8 0.4 0.1 Unemployed 2.8- 3.5- 2.3- 3.0- 0.2 Personal income 23,592 22,440 17,310 16,013- 16,178 Only unemployment rate is unfavorable, and they are all very low. US Census figures, from San Jose Mercury News Sept 23, 1993 \doc936\immig2.xls NEW JERSEY IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS ONLY MAKE 6% LESS \clip\97\08\njimm.txt N.J. Immigrants' Diversity and Education Tied to Public Backing The New York Times , March 19, 1997 By CELIA W. DUGGER - The average income for immigrant households in New Jersey was $48,100 in 1989, just $3,000 a year less than that of native-born households. (6% less, statistically, about equal) @@income inequality \clip\97\29\incineq.txt Study Shows New York Has Greatest Income Gap The New York Times, December 17, 1997 By RICHARD PEREZ-PENA Pulling Apart: A State-by-State Analysis of Income Trends - Press Release December 16, 1997 http://www.cbpp.org/pa-rel.htm STATE-BY-STATE REPORT FINDS INCOME INEQUALITY GROWING IN 48 OUT OF 50 STATES SINCE LATE 1970s --------------------------------------------------------- Only 7% of Economists agree that immigration has had a major impact on income inequality ---------------------------------------------------------- \doc\97\03\econimm.txt Source: "Economists in Survey..." Wall Street Journal March 6, 1997 p. A2 (survey of academic economists by the Wall Street Journal, 1997) % of academic economists who agree that a issue had a major impact on income inequality: ------------------------------------------------- 80% Technological change 35% Deterioration of public schools 30% International trade 19% Changing demographics 7% Decline of unions 7% Immigration <----------------------------- 5% Declining minimum wage \clip\96\02\valyinco.txt 4 Aug 1996 San Jose Mercury News Valley defies growing income gap -- Census figures: Rich getting richer, but Santa Clara County's poor also prosper. By Scott Thurm. The Mercury News analysis of census surveys from 1976 to 1994 found that household incomes in Santa Clara County have increased at every socioeconomic level, after adjusting for inflation and the number of people who live in the household. Household incomes at each level studied increased between 12 and 25 percent. Comment - critics like Norm Matloff claim immigrants reduce incomes, but Silicon Valley has a high percentage of immigrants, but a high level of incomes that increases for all income levels. Norm Matloff also dismisses the importance of higher education, but the fact is that although high school students are capable of programming, education is a key advantage to Silicon valley residents. \priv\96b\08\imminc.htm - Monday, July 15, 1996 · Page A1 © 1996 San Francisco Chronicle PAGE ONE -- Income Gap Widens Fast In California Rich didn't get richer -- poor got poorer, study says study of CA " found that immigration, along with changes in the number of female-headed households, were two of the major forces behind changes in inequality at the state level. " @@income increase EVEN LATINO IMMIGRANT INCOMES UP, 67% OF ASIANS CITIZ IN 10 YRS, POV ONLY 6% \clip\97\06\immincup.txt http://www.csmonitor.com/plweb-cgi/idoc.pl?142438+unix+_free_user_+www.csmonitor.com..80+paper+paper+archives+archives++asian Immigrant Upward Mobility Reassessed Tracking California newcomers over two decades shows surprising climb in income By Daniel B. Wood, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor Jan 11, 1996 "One key finding is the growing income levels of male Latino immigrants from 1980 to 1990. When lumped together as they are in conventional studies, their personal income declined by 8 percent during the decade. But by tracking specific age groups and adjusting for inflation, Mr. Myers found Latinos aged 25 to 34 in 1980 saw their average income climb from $14,890 to $18,899 a decade later - a 27 percent rise. " "Among Asians who arrived in 1980, 67 percent had become US citizens by 1990. Some 53 percent of Asians spoke English by '90, and the number in poverty was only 6 percent. Across all ethnicities, when comparing 1970s immigrants with native-born Americans of the same race, upward advancement was generally faster for the immigrants." @@Income Test \clip\07\09\mignews.txt Migration News April 1997 The New York Times on March 16, 1997 reported that an INS study of 2,160 statements signed by sponsors of family immigrants in 1994 found that 30 percent of those sponsors had incomes below the new 125 percent standard. The INS found that roughly half of the Mexicans and Salvadorans, one-third of the Dominicans and Koreans, and one-fourth of the Chinese and Jamaicans who sponsored immigrants in 1994 would not have met the 125 percent standard. About half of the immigrants sponsoring their wives, and 30 percent of the US citizens sponsoring spouses, did not meet the 125 percent standard. The income asserted by the sponsor was not verified, and it was often difficult to determine family size. A US resident without sufficient income to sponsor family members for immigration may find another US resident to sign an affidavit of support. An Urban Institute analysis of 1993 Census Bureau data found that 40 percent of immigrant families in the United States would not have enough income to sponsor an immigrant under the 125 percent standard. If cash and non-cash means-tested federal welfare benefits are included, about 21 percent of immigrant-headed households receive some welfare benefits, compared with 14 percent of native-headed households. @@increase >>\priv\95\19\armyimm.htm - http://www.cato.org/main/pr-ja-da.html Rep Dick Armey says we should think about increasing legal immigration @@Innovation Norman Matloff's claim against skilled immigrants hinges around his contention that immigrants have made nearly none of the truly important innovations in high technology, yet he insists that America's most successful companies widely heralded by business magazines and newspapers, Intel, Microsoft, and Yahoo aren't innovative at all. So new immigrants aren't any more crucial to the economy than Bill Gates, Intel, or Microsoft. @@internet resources http://www.usdoj.gov/ins/ INS home page http://www.wave.net/upg/immigration/resource.html#Other LISTS" http://www.wisc.edu/history/404tja/ http://www.uni-konstanz.de/FuF/ueberfak/fzaa/welcome.html http://www.ruu.nl/ercomer/wwwvl/index.html @@interstate movers \priv\95\12\whammove.txt Where Americans Are Moving Fortune Aug 21, 1995 p. 32 - Most population growth is driven by interstate, not foreign migration, and cities with the highest growth rates are also the most prosperous with most job growth. Place with people leaving tend to be in decline "Research done by Harvard economist Edward Glaeser shows that once a city starts outpacing the nation in population growth, it also moves to the top of the charts in job and income growth." States where domestic immigrants provided one- to two-thirds of population gain are Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Utah, and Washington. @@irca \priv\95\07\saws.txt - SAWS also converted to alien residents \doc\95\06\irca.doc - Explains IRCA program from 1989 yearbook \doc\95\07\irca1.wk1 Aliens Legalized under IRCA Analysis by Arthur Hu The IRCA (Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986) legislation allowed illegal aliens who have been in the US since 1982 to apply for legal status. They are counted in immigration figures, even though they are already residents. The application period had ended as of 1990 Applications filed as of May, 1990 Country Persons Percent Total 1,762,143 100.0% Mexico 1,230,457 69.8% El Salvador 143,203 8.1% Guatemala 42,483 2.4% Columbia 26,392 1.5% Phillipines 19,089 1.1% Dominican Rep 18,285 1.0% Poland 16,441 0.9% Nicaragua 16,015 0.9% Other 249,778 14.2% Region Persons Percent N. America 1,533,064 87.0% Mexico 1,230,457 69.8% Central Am 236,127 13.4% Caribbean 59,913 3.4% Asia 81,059 4.6% <- Less than 5% of undocumented S. America 74,010 4.2% Europe 35,243 2.0% Africa 31,719 1.8% Oceania 3,524 0.2% Source: 1989 Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service IRCA as proportion of all immigrants 1970-1990 An estimate of percentage of immigrants who entered illegally Total Imm Total Percent Country 71-80 81-90 Less IRCA Undocumented Total Mexico 640,294 1,655,843 1,065,680 53.6% El Salvador 34,436 213,539 104,772 57.7% Guatemala Columbia 77,347 122,849 173,804 13.2% Phillipines 354,987 548,764 884,662 2.1% Dominican Rep 148,135 252,035 381,885 4.6% Poland 37,234 83,252 104,045 13.6% Nicaragua Other Region N. America Mexico 640,294 1,655,843 1,065,680 53.6% Central Am 134,640 468,088 366,601 39.2% Caribbean 741,126 872,051 1,553,264 3.7% Asia 1,588,178 2,738,157 4,245,276 1.9% S. America 295,741 461,847 683,578 9.8% Europe 800,368 761,550 1,526,675 2.3% Africa 80,779 176,893 225,953 12.3% Oceania Note Asia has the smallest percentage of illegals asking for legalization of status Only 5% of illegals are Asian, compared with the 87% who are from North America (including Mexico). Only 2% of Asians are likely to be illegal, lower than any other region in the world, including Europe, compared to over half of those from Mexico @@Irish c:\clip\97\08\irish.txt Subject: Erin Go Bragh Lately, Irish eyes turning homeward: Republic's fast-growing economy is drawing back many emigrants Boston Globe, March 17, 1997 @@italy \clip\96\05\mignews.txt MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 3, No. 10 October, 1996 The government reports that there are almost one million foreigners living in Italy, a country with a population of 56 million, not counting naturalized Italians and "hundreds of thousands" of illegal immigrants. @@jamaicans \clip\96\02\jamaic.txt Date: Mon, 12 Aug 1996 Jamaican Immigrants Building Quiet Success Story The Miami Herald The Jamaican community has a low poverty rate, high incomes and an impressive participation in managerial and professional fields. They were English-speaking, capitalist, and grew up familiar with American culture. Boswell compiled a socioeconomic ranking that put Jamaicans over every immigrant group except the Peruvians, and the highest personal incomes. "Jamaicans will work 2 or 3 jobs to stay off of public assistance" @@Japan http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WAPO/19970312/V000243-031297-idx.html \clip\97\08\chincrim.txt Japan Fears Foreigner Crime Rise AP Wednesday, March 12, 1997 4:36 am EST "Though Chinese make up 16 percent of the foreigners living in Japan, they committed 35 percent of the crimes by non-Japanese between January and October last year -- up from 25 percent in 1991. " @@job competition \priv\95\14\immtake.txt - Immigrants take jobs from blacks and hu response. @@job field \priv\95\14\impol.txt "IMMIGRANTS MAKE MARK ON CHICAGO AND SUBURBS" Chicago Tribune Oct 12, 1995 Chicago: Of the 16 occupations in which immigrants are highly represented, all are working-class except one: physicians. About half of all groundskeepers and gardeners, hand packers, and machine operators working in the nine-county area are immigrants. They also account for more than a third of all maids, cooks and cabdrivers. "Our economy can't do without this kind of immigrant labor." Almost 25 percent of those from India and the Philippines are professional specialists such as doctors, nurses and lawyers. But only 2 percent of immigrants from Mexico hold such positions. Almost 90 percent of Indian immigrants speak English well, and 85 percent are at least high school graduates. Conversely, almost half of immigrants from Mexico speak little or no English, and more than 70 percent have no high school diploma. 18% of Mexican, 33% of Vietnamese live in poverty 33.5% of doctors are immigrants 48.7% of groundskeepers and gardeners @@job growth Immigrants create net new jobs, they don't simply take jobs away. z54\clip\2002\01\brainim.txt Brain Circulation http://www.brook.edu/press/REVIEW/winter2002/saxenian.htm Brain Circulation How High-Skill Immigration Makes Everyone Better Off by AnnaLee Saxenian Far from simply replacing native workers, foreign-born engineers are starting new businesses and generating jobs and wealth at least as fast as their U.S. counterparts. And the dynamism of emerging regions in Asia and elsewhere now draws skilled immigrants homeward. \doc\web\99\08\immread.txt "Silicon Valley's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs" by AnnaLee Saxenian, University of California, Berkeley http://www.ppic.org/#ppic120 ABSTRACT: This study examines the economic contributions of Silicon Valley's highly skilled immigrants, focusing in particular on the region's Chinese and Indian computer scientists and engineers, who are generating jobs and wealth for the California economy. In 1998, firms started by Chinese and Indians between 1980 and 1998 collectively accounted for nearly $17 billion in sales and over 58,000 jobs. IMMIGRATION 40% OF LABOR FORCE GROWTH MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 12 December, 1997 \clip\97\28\mignews.txt The Jerome Levy Economics Institute in August 1997 released a report on immigrants in the US labor market which noted that immigration accounts for 40 percent of labor force growth. The consensus among economists is that an increase in immigration of 10 percent reduces overall US wages by one percent and more than one percent in low-skill labor markets. For example, between 1980 and 1988, immigration increased the number of high school dropouts in the work force by roughly 25 percent and the wages of high school dropouts declined by 10 percent. @@job verification \priv\95\15\jobverif.txt - new INS computer system to verify legal works in California @@labor, against "Doing Right by Hong Kong" Economist Sept 30, 1995 p. 18 British Labor party as been strongly anti-immigrant since the 1960's. Editors believe that Hong Kong residents should be allowed to move to UK if China take over doesn't work. Not all will come, since Hong Kong is a place where things are moving, and many make more than the UK. 3.3 million could potentially come. \priv\95\15\immbackl.txt Pulling Up the Ladder The Anti-Immigrant Backlash The late 1800's were difficult for Chinese in the U.S._the growing trade union movement based part of it's organizing strategy on advocating deportation of Chinese immigrants. Race riots on the West coast were the response of angry whites who blamed Chinese for their woes. (Daniels: 1988) @@labor force participation \doc\95\07\closdoor.txt "Don't Close Our 'Golden Door'" John Miller, Center for Equal Opportunity, Wash DC, Wall Street Journal May 25, 1995. 80% arrive before 45, vs, 68% of general population 77% in labor force vs. 74% (90 census) 83% for Hispanics @@labor shortage \priv\96\03\autoshor.txt - AP 1996 shortage of skilled labor in auto industry @@language \priv\96b\07\germtest.txt Germany introduces a language test for potential immigrants. Immigration.language \priv\95\09\fiximmp.txt - In counties that have the highest concentrations of immigrants from one country, 11 percent are fluent in English. In completely diverse counties, English fluency among immigrants averages 74 percent. Edward P. Lazear SFC 8/2/95 @@law \clip\97\13\immlaw.txt Immigration Act Was 'Coming of Age' for Asian-Americans The Wall Street Journal, May 15, 1997 By DAVID ROGERS Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal WASHINGTON -- Sen. Paul Simon had just two co-sponsors when he introduced his version of the "Legal Immigration Reform Act of 1989." Then again, Mr. Simon also had Maria Hsia and John Huang. Based in California, the two Chinese-Americans brought money and their own special alliances to the fight to protect visas for relatives of Asian immigrants in the U.S. \doc\95\07\immrecom.txt - 1995 commission recommends less immigration \priv\95\07\immcurb.txt - Clinton panel recommends cutting legal immigration by one-third to protect American jobs. NYT 6/8/95 @@liberals \priv\95\15\immback.txt The ambivalence of liberals over the issue of immigration has allowed the views of the political right to become the mainstream. @@Ling, Yeh Yeh Chinese who speaks against immigration as an environmental issue, has quoted Norman Matloff, was invited to speak at KOMO in 1996 on Bilingual and English only issues. Prop 187 Struck Down Asian Week 3/26/98 Yeh Yeh Ling, head of the newly formed Diversity Alliance for Sustainable America, a Berkeley nonprofit advocating for limits in legal immigration said the ruling was unfortunate. She is an immigrant from france of Chinese ancestry Yeh Yeh Ling of the Carrying Capacity network ( Carrying Capacity Network Orinda, CA 94563 (510-376-4766)) quoted Norm Matloff's assertion that nearly all essential contributions were made by natives \priv\95\13\massimmg.txt "Mass Immigration hurts America" Seattle Times Aug 29, 1995 Chinese YEH LING-LING calls for 5 year moratorim on immigration, cites Matloff @@Lottery (Visa) \doc\web\97\07\visalot2.txt From: msk@us.net (Mark Krikorian) Subject: Visa lottery results [For CISNEWS subscribers: Here's the State Department press release from last week announcing the number of visas awarded in the Diversity Lottery. Nearly 100,000 names were selected, but only 55,000 people will get immigration visas under the program -- the State Department overbooks knowing that many people won't qualify or will fail to follow up. So that you don't have to fish through the entire list, I have listed the top 20 recipient countries: BANGLADESH 6,075 GHANA 6,035 NIGERIA 6,007 BULGARIA 5,411 SIERRA LEONE 5,364 ROMANIA 4,307 UKRAINE 4,280 ALBANIA 4,233 RUSSIA 3,768 EGYPT 3,650 PAKISTAN 3,391 TURKEY 2,947 ETHIOPIA 2,674 GERMANY 2,510 MOROCCO 1,923 SUDAN 1,709 LIBERIA 1,708 LITHUANIA 1,418 KENYA 1,329 CUBA 1,206 \clip\97\20\visalott.txt From: msk@us.net (Mark Krikorian) Visa Lottery Winners Find Luck Can Be a Fickle Friend The Wall Street Journal, September 12, 1997 By BARRY NEWMAN Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal @@Major High tech degrees have the highest pay, lowest unemployment, and greatest relative demand. "Why Parents of College Kids Can Rest Easy: 1997 Grads Faced Jobs Galore, And So Will Future Grads" Investor's Business Daily June 25, 1997 Top professions embracing new college graduates include electrical engineering, software manufacturing, financial consulting and accounting accorind to Coopers & Lybrand. @@Malaysia \clip\97\19\malay.txt Subject: Foreign workers in Malaysia Companies Rely Heavily on Immigrant Workforce The Wall Street Journal, August 28, 1997 @@manufacturing MR. DO'S AMERICAN DREAM WSJ 7/2/03 Made $62k last yr as cad tool designer in suburb of Hartford Ct, 43 yr old Viet refugee, sends 15 yr old son to private school, trained with state money after layoff. Percent immigrants in manufacturing workforce 1970 7 1980 8 1990 12 2000 15 Census, BLS @@MARRIAGE \clip\97\08\marrbur.txt Marriage Bureaus Assailed for Strict Policy on Immigrants The New York Times, March 14, 1997 By RANDY KENNEDY NEW YORK -- Stricter enforcement of rules for showing valid identification at the city's marriage bureaus has sown confusion among thousands of illegal immigrants who are lining up to be married before tougher immigration laws take effect next month, advocates for immigrants say. \clip\97\02\mainspou.txt http://ww3.sinanet.com/news/0130news/13_E.html MORE MAINLAND SPOUSES TO BE ALLOWED ENTRY Taipei, Jan. 30 (CNA) Taiwan will allow more people from mainland China who are married to ROC citizens to settle here, increasing the number from the current 1,080 annually to 1,800, the Mainland Affairs Council (MAC) reported Thursday. \priv\96\02\korbride.txt - Koreans may be marrying brides from the Phillipines to get housemaids. @@meatpacker Meat packing houses are bringing unskilled workers into America's heartland which used to be exclusively European stock. KOSHER SLAUGHTERHOUSE BRINGS THE WORLD TO SMALL IOWA TOWN \clip\99\03\heart.txt In Insular Iowa Town, a Jolt of Worldliness A torrent of diversity has been a shock to tiny Postville, which was all white, all Christian for 150 years. The residents--some, anyway--are trying hard to adjust. By STEPHANIE SIMON Los Angeles Times, January 26, 1999 \clip\96\04\meatpack.txt TO CALL IT HOME: THE NEW IMMIGRANTS OF SOUTHWESTERN MINNESOTA Oct. 17-19, 1996, Southwest State University, Marshall, Minnesota The conference will focus on the new immigrant populations of this region and their relationship to the meatpacking industry. It will also introduce a new book: TO CALL IT HOME: THE NEW IMMIGRANTS OF SOUTHWESTERN MINNESOTA, by Joseph Amato, John Meyer, John Radzilowski, Donata DeBruyckere, and Anthony Amato (Marshall: Crossings Press). \doc\96\06\meatpac2.txt Norm Matloff says Roy Beck has quite a bit to say about immigration and wage reduction in the meat packing industry. @@medicaid \doc\96\06\medicaid.txt Norm matloff says that SSI and Medicaid are not linked, Seattle Times says "it is unclear if states will be able to offer medicaid if SSI is denied" 9/8/96 @@Medical \clip\99\13\medimm.txt Ailing Foreigners Add to Burdens of Emergency Rooms Nationwide By RANDY KENNEDY The New York Times, July 1, 1999, p. 1 "They are known as medical immigrants, poor or middle-class foreigners who scrape and save to fly to New York, but not to join family, flee oppression or find work. Instead, they come solely to seek treatment at city emergency rooms, where Federal and state law says they must be examined and treated if their problems require immediate care." @@Medical Research INDO-AM SCIENTIST FINDS CANCER CURE \clip\97\29\puri.txt AP 12/09/1997 FDA Tests New Cancer Drug By LAURAN NEERGAARD AP Medical Writer BETHESDA, Md. (AP) -- Dr. Raj Puri injected mice with an experimental ``smart bomb'' for cancer and watched as huge tumors disappeared from their bodies within a few weeks. @@mexican \clip\97\20\meximm.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/migr_083197.html Seattle Times Sunday, Aug. 31, 1997 Migrant estimates overblown, study finds by Sam Dillon New York Times MEXICO CITY - The first formal migration study to be sponsored by the U.S. and Mexican governments has concluded that the number of undocumented Mexican workers who have settled in the United States in this decade is far lower than some politicians have suggested, only about 105,000 a year. [Government sometimes gives more than they get, but migrants, and their employers and consumers benefit from low wage labor] MEXICAN IMMIGRATION LIKELY ABOUT 100,000 / YR, GROWS US ECONOMY U. S. - Mexico Binational Commission on migration Among its many important efforts is a reduction of estimates of annual entries of undocumented Mexican workers from wildly inflated guesses of 1 million to a more likely figure of about 105,000. Moreover, according to the Times's peek at its findings, the Binational Commission report offers the following conclusions: 1)"[m]igrant workers in the United States, both legal and undocumented, most of whom in the past have returned to homes in Mexico at least once a year, are tending to stay longer north of the border"; 2) mean income of Mexican immigrants dropped between 1990 and 1996; 3) Mexican migrants are no more likely than other poor Americans to receive welfare; 4) Mexican migrants continue to supply, in the form of remittances, about half of all direct foreign investment in Mexico, a flow of money that annually amounts to something between $2.5 billion to $3.9 billion; and 5) "[t]he U.S. economy grows through employment and consumption generated by the migration." \clip\97\19\nymex.txt [For CISNEWS subscribers: An excerpt from Joel Millman's new book, run in his newspaper. As inspiring as the story is, it makes clear that his book is another articulation of the "get rid of the blacks and bring in the Mexicans" theory of immigration. -- Mark Krikorian] How Mexicans Helped Save A Blighted Corner in Brooklyn The Wall Street Journal, July 10, 1997 [This article is adapted from the book , by Joel Millman, being published this month by Viking. Copyright 1997 by Joel Millman.] also see \doc\97\02\mignews.txt MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 2 February, 1997 Most migrant men don't use welfare benefits and don't bring children HALF OF MEXICANS ENTER ILLEGALLY, MOST THAT DON'T MAKE IT GO HOME IN 2 YEARS c:\clip\97\02\mexstay.txt http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/chronicle/article.cgi?file=MN57788.DTL&directory=/chronicle/archive/1997/01/29 Wednesday, January 29, 1997 · Page A2 ©1997 San Francisco Chronicle Most Mexicans Don't Stay in U.S. Study finds that most return home within a few years (About half of mexicans entered illegally, most of those who don't suceed go home within 2 years, those that stay pull their own weight. 70% of unemployed returned in just one year) Aurelio Rojas, Chronicle Staff Writer Los Angeles (Public Policy Institute of California) @@rand RAND STUDY SAYS ADMIT FEWER IMMIGRANTS, BUT MORE MEXICANS TO STEM ILLEGALS d:\clip\97\20\rand.txt ap 09/16/1997 08:55 EST Study: Stem Flow of Immigrants to US By DENNIS ANDERSON Associated Press Writer LOS ANGELES (AP) -- Congress should tighten the admission of all legal immigrants into the United States to ease the strain they bring on public services and employment, a new study suggests. (LA Times article too) @@Real Estate \clip\98\08\immnew01.txt Immigrant Boom to Boost Real Estate Market, Ernst & Young Says Dow Jones Newswires, May 6, 1998 By JANET MORRISSEY NEW YORK -- An immigration wave in the U.S. could mean big business opportunities for real estate developers, builders and investors, an Ernst & Young Kenneth Leventhal study said. @@Reciprocity RECIPROCITY AS IMMIGRATION REDUCTION TACTIC?? (SACRAMENTO: POPULATION SANITY) \doc\web\97\11\recip.txt @@referalls At Sun Microsystems, 60% of jobs are filled by employee referalls. San Francisco Chronicle analysis of racism in Silicon Valley. June 1998 Migration News (norm matloff claims that immigrant hiring networks is harmful) @@retraining @@mid-career It is Norman Matloff's odd contention that unemployment is not the problem, but underemployment since he cite "Cindy" a Chinese American laid off from the defence industry who couldn't find work in Silicon Valley. The real problem is a mismatch in skills and the fact that his claim that any software engineers is appropriate for any job regardless of credentials is simply made up. http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19960708S0147 \clip\97\07\multimed.txt Electrical Engineering Times July 08, 1996, Issue: 909 Engineers retrained for multimedia By Robert Bellinger Comment - if Norman Matloff says any programmer can be productive in any technology in one month, then why bother with expensive retraining? \priv\96b\07\retrain.txt EE Times July 8, 1996 p. 84 "Engineers retrained for Multimedia" Summary - "Too old, too expensive, too narrow, too outdated, those are dreaded words for former defence engineers who get laid off" They participated in multimedia training, and were able to be hired once their skills had been updated. It's not that cheaper immigrants were hired in their place, more appropriate skilled people regardless of immigration status were simply better qualified. Mr Matloff presented absolutely no evidence that in fact, it was mostly native born persons who took the jobs that people like Cindy didn't get because they just weren't qualified. @@matloff, norm _matloff_ Self-proclaimed expert on immigration specializes in attacking skilled Chinese engineers, but claims he is not against Chinese or immigrants. Similar to late 19th century white worker parties which were against discriminating against blacks, but against Chinese workers. @@migration (from other states) \priv\95\09\migrate.txt - Fortune says most growth is from interstate migration, not immigration Migration in the United States By Richard Wright (Dept. of Geography, Dartmouth College) and Mark Ellis and Michael Reibel (Dept. of Geography, UCLA) Economic Geography Vol. 73, No. 2, pp. 234-254. Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between the internal migration of native-born workers and flows of immigrants to the United States using the 1980 and 1990 Census microsamples. A growing body of research asserts that places like New York, Los Angeles, and Miami suffer net losses of native-born workers, particularly the unskilled, because of immigration. We contend that large metropolitan areas suffer net losses of internal migrants for reasons other than the flow of immigrants to these localities. Based on the estimation of three sets of regression models for five overlapping samples of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States and five mutually exclusive segments of the labor force, this analysis shows that the finding of a significant linkage between internal migration and immigration depends critically on the empirical experiment used. In direct opposition to previous published research, we conclude that net migration of the native born for metropolitan areas is either positively related or unrelated to immigration. Our models show that the net migration loss of unskilled native workers from metropolitan areas is probably a function of those cities' population size rather immigrant flow to them. We conclude that the net migration loss of native-born workers from large metropolitan areas is more likely the result of industrial restructuring than competition with immigrants. @@Millman More poor people become rich people in America than anywhere else THE OTHER AMERICANS How Immigrants Renew Our Country, Our Economy, and Our Values by Joel Millman CU7652 (hardcover) 369p. $24.95 Great reporting with hundreds of fascinating and dramatic cases about how immigrants help Americans prosper--even the poorest among us. Millman shows how "collapsed inner cities are being reclaimed, as neighborhoods that have expelled their middle class for decades are suddenly full of life. Crime declines, and the drug culture begins to wither away. Failed schools become model institutions. Immigrants don't just renew themselves. They renew us." Russell Hanneken Laissez Faire Books russell@laissezfaire.org http://laissezfaire.org/ @@moratorium From: DCLOBBYIST@aol.com Get your facts right! FAIR's 5 Year immigration "moratorium" proposal would still allow about 300,000 per year during the "moratorium"......that clearly is not stopping ALL immigration as you stated......300,000 new people, plus the continued influx of illegals is still a lot of new folks! @@National Interest \clip\98\11\natlint.txt The 'National Interest' Causes INS To Wander Down Peculiar Paths By BARRY NEWMAN The Wall Street Journal, August 20, 1998, page 1 [if you're famous, the INS will let you in] has granted the right of permanent residence to an acrobat from Russia who plays a horn while flying through the air. A Chinese nuclear physicist specializing in detecting radioactive leaks has also been granted permanent residence in the national interest. @@National Research Council Commision on Population Panel on Demographic and Economic Impacts of Immigration Link to images of entire book @@Naturalization Laws Date sent: Thu, 8 Jul 1999 13:21:45 -0400 From: Kevin.S.Wong@williams.edu Asians were barred from naturalization up until 1943. At this point Chinese immigrants were allowed to apply for citizenship. Filipinos and Indians were granted that right in 1946. Japanese and Koreans in 1952. The granting of the right to naturalized citizenship to these Asian groups should be seen in terms of the politics of WWII and the Cold War. Scott Wong @@new workers see @@new zealand \priv\96b\01\immdown.txt "Immigration Down Under" Wall Street Journal 4/16/96 About 1/3 of all jobs in New Zealand are a product of the nation's immigration policy, immigrants from Taiwan pumped $513 million into Auckland. Opponents object to the affluence of mostly Chinese immigrants, and demands that they be slashed to no more than 10,000 a year, and not be allowed to buy more land than they can live or work on. Maybe Norm Matloff can help convince people that the Chinese must be kept out. @@Open US OPPOSITION TO IMMIGRANTS NOT UNLIKE CHINA RESTRICTING INTERNAL MOVES z40\clip\2000\03\chinimm.txt Jacob Sullum's column from Reason.com: Moving Targets By Jacob Sullum March 15, 2000 In China, you have to ask the government for permission before you move from one part of the country to another. That policy faces increasingly vocal opposition from Chinese journalists and academics--a controversy that suggests both how far China has traveled on the road toward liberalism and how far it still has to go. @@Opinion Summary: Pro Pro Anti ------------------------------------------ Keep or increase levels Asian 79% Hisp 60% Keep/incr imm engineers 63% 37% EE Times 1997 Anti Pro Anti ------------------------------------------- Immigrants are drain vs. good 39% 61% for economy Money 1997 CA Hisp-Am support immig curb 39% 47% Rivera Center 1996 1999: MOST AMERICANS FAVOR IMMIGRATION, OPPOSE BARRIES NOW BusinessWeek Magazine, March 22 Issue Immigrants Welcome In a stunning reversal, a Gallup Poll released on Mar. 8 found that Americans, by 58% to 39%, now oppose a cutoff in legal immigration. The percentage of Americans who favor barriers to new immigration has plunged from 65% in 1995 to 44%. Reason: The booming economy seems to have put voters in a more accommodating mood. For the first time, more Americans than not believe that newcomers ''pay their fair share of taxes.'' MOST MASS ASIANS, HISPANICS FAVOR KEEPING OR INCREASING IMMIGRATION "UMass Poll Offers Insights on Asian Americans" UMass Poll of 300 nonwhite residents, 114 Asian residents of Massachusetts spring 1998. U Massachusetts Boston Institute for Asian American Studies, Institute News Summer 1998 p. 1 Maintain or increase immigration A79% H60% TEXAS 59/30, CALIFORNIA 47/39 HISP-AM WANT IMMIG CURBS clip\97\20\mexpoll.txt Anti-Immigration Immigrants Hispanics Fret Over Job Losses From New Entrants Investors Business Daily, September 9, 1997 By David A. Price 63% OF EE'S OK WITH IMMIGRANTS, ONLY 37% WANT TO REDUCE THEM "Most EEs have no problem with present immigration levels" http://techweb.cmp.com/eet/salarysurvey/opinion/opinion1.html \clip\97\20\eetimes\immok.txt [63% of engineers polled are OK, only 37% wanted to reduce immigration] poll of readers of EE Times 61% BELIEVE IMMIGRANTS ARE DRAIN VS. 39 POSITIVE INFLUENCE ON ECONOMY \clip\97\20\immpoll.txt AP 09/10/1997 American Money Worries Grow By SETH SUTEL AP Business Writer (Money Magazine survey) WSJ POLL FINDS AFFLUENT, REPUB R&F FOR, POOR, DEMO AGAINST IMMIGRATION \clip\97\16\immpoll.txt (tip from CISNEWS) On Immigration, Party Leaders Aren't Necessarily In Sync With Feelings of Rank and File The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 1997 ALBERT R. HUNT Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal The immigration debate, steeped heavily in economic arguments, rages nationally, most notably in key states such as California. While Republican leaders have embraced the anti-immigration position, top Democrats generally have been more supportive of immigrants.... ANTI-IMMIGRATION IS LOSING STEAM FROM 93 PEAK \clip\97\15\immpoll.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/immi_061697.html The Seattle Times Company Monday, June 16, 1997 Negative views on immigration have eased in the U.S., poll says "Two groups, those with less education and African-Americans, were most likely to say that present-day immigration is bad for the country." "But the council also found that immigrants have boosted wages for the overwhelming majority of Americans, including blacks with a high-school education or more. [which is true of most blacks]" "Asian Americans on the Issues" Asian Week Aug 9, 1996 p. 16 F050597-1 Immigration Policies Asian Week survey of 807 Asian Americans Yes No No Opinion Withholding welfare, education and medical benefits from illegal immigrants 60.2 32.1 7.7 Denying welfare benefits to legal immigrants for the first 5 years 45.5 46.6 7.9 Stopping almost all legal immigration 34.4 58.9 6.7 for the next 5 years 62% of SURVEYED ENGINEERS DON'T WANT TO RESTRICT IMMIGRATION \clip\97\07\immsurv.txt http://www.techweb.com/search/search.html Electrical Engineering Times Mar 11, 1997 September 30, 1996, Issue: 921 Section: 1996 Worldwide Salary And Opinion Survey -- Opinion @@organizations FAIR home page http://www.igc.org/fair/ \priv\95\08\softpac.txt SoftPac Programmers against immigrants @@origin d:\doc\94\19\immipop.txt - Immigration and population - 85 percent of legal immigrants come from Asia and Latin America - Worldwide, 100 million people live outside their country of birth \doc\95\13\immrace.txt "Census shows 7% of state's residents are foreign-born" Aly Colon Seattle Times Aug 29, 1995 p. B3 paper filed 10-6-95 vs. 8.7 nationally, CA 24% NY 16% Fla 14.7% Numbers up 50% since 1980 - less immigrant than national average despite coastal location - lots of canadians Washington USA - Mexico 1.3M Russians 243,000 90-94 1 Vietnam 42,000 2 *Canada 32,000 3 *England 27,000 4 Korea 26,000 5 Mexico 20,000 6 *Germany 18,000 7 Philippines 16,000 8 China 11,000 9 El Salvador 10,000 10 *Italy 9,000 Others 159,000 Total Foreign Born 370,000 US Born 4,866,000 Total 5,236,000 In Washington State, 4 out of top 10 are from Europe or Candada 3 are from Asian nations with more education than natives Only 3 from "undesirable" nations. @@parents \doc\95\11\suprparn.txt - panel proposes requiring children sponsoring parents to buy lifetime health insurance, and require proof of lifetime responsiblity. Over one quarter of elderly immigrants are on some kind of welfare, 3 times higher than native elderly citizens. @@Patent IMMIGRANTS RESPONSIBLE FOR ABOUT 1 IN 4 US PATENTS VS. 9% OF POPULATION \clip\97\19\immpat.txt http://schoolreport.com/AdTI/policies/immigration/immpat.htm Invented in the USA: Immigrants, Patents, and Jobs by Philip Peters, Senior Fellow March 6, 1996 Alexis de Tocqueville Institution "Using a random selection of 1988 and 1994 patents, we found: Based on the responses to our survey, about one patent in four (26.4%) is created by immigrants alone or by immigrants collaborating with U.S.-born co-inventors.Based on our entire sample (i.e. counting nonresponses as nonimmigrant inventors), about one patent in five (19.2%) involves immigrants as sole or co-inventors. That's a conservative estimate with a 5% margin of error. Immigrants account for about 8.7% of the U.S. population. Hence, the study shows immigrants to be more than twice as likely as the general population to generate patented innovations" @@PhD Doctoral programs have the highest percentage of of foreign students, most of whom plan to immigrate permanently. %%Against The Immigration Law of 1990 and its effects Notices of the AMS Aug 1999 p. 767 http://www.ams.org/notices/199907/199907-toc.html e:\clipim\99\07\12\commentary.pdf Only 58% of 487 academic jobs in mathematics went to US citizens. Tenured and tenure eligible hires in PHD granting departments 45%. Over half of postdoc positions in science went to immigrants on temporary visas. %%Stay 73% OF FOREIGN PHDS STAYING IN US VS 50% IN 1988, 80% ARE ASIAN IEEE Spectrum Jan 1999 www.nsf.gov.sbe/srs/nsf/99304/start.htm National Science Foundation reports in 1988, 1700 PhDs from abroad or about half intended to stay. By 1996, it was 5600 or 73% of non-U.S. students. Asians were the highet percentage of doctoral degree recipients 77.8%, and of those planning to stay 80.8% 63% OF FOREIGN BORN PHDS STAY IN USA \doc\web\98\10\immnew02.txt More Foreign-Born S&E Doctoral Recipients Stay, Because the United States Is "Where the Jobs Are" The report, Statistical Profiles of Foreign Doctoral Recipients in Science and Engineering: Plans to Stay in the United States, says 63 percent of foreign-born students who earned S&E doctorates from U.S. institutions between 1988 and 1996 said they planned to locate here, compared to 50 percent or less of those previously studied. Two-thirds of those who planned to stay had firm plans for further study or employment. %%Population MORE THAN HALF OF MATH PHDS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES More than half the students in U.S. graduate schools who receive doctoral degrees in math each year are from other countries. Expert says that America's students, math skills not adding up By Cecilia Ballí San Antonio Express-News Staff Writer Jan 13, 1999 @@phd surplus o There may be a surplus of PhD and pure scientists, but NOT of programmers and software engineers! \clip\97\11\hale.txt USA Today 04/11/97 Scientist Hale finds a comet but can't find a job, he says "Unemployment rates for all scientists and engineers was 1.5% in 1995, says Catherine Gaddy, executive director, Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, Washington, D.C. " "Landing a Job In The Sciences Takes Some Creativity" Wall Street Journal F042997-1 p. B1 "The production of science and engineering doctorates exceeds job opportunities by 22%, according to a 1995 study by Rand Corp and Stanford University researchers" "Scientists cite declining funding for research, a glut of PhD holders and reluctance by many scientists to pursue alternatives to a pure research career" \priv\95\18\scisurp.txt - There are too many PhDs and not enough jobs. Americans have stopped coming as foreigners are half of PhDs @@political influence \doc\97\02\mignews.txt MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 2 February, 1997 What the heck is political influence good for if you can't push the agenda of your ethnic group?? Blacks ask blatantly for favors all the time, why not Asians? According to a January 16, 1997 article in the Boston Globe, it was at the urging of Democratic National Committee vice chairman and fund raiser John Huang that President Clinton reversed his endorsement of the Jordan Commission recommendations to reduce legal immigration by eliminating slots for adult siblings of US citizens. In many cases, immigrants from Asian nations sponsor their adult brothers and sisters after they become naturalized US citizens. As late as February 11, 1996, Clinton had repeated his support for "lowering the level of legal immigration...as @@poll [[prop 187 (no benefits for immigrants) \doc\95\06\vote187.txt 23% Latino 47% Black Asian supported 187 \PRIV\95\04\P187POLL.TXT - PROP 187 Poll by race 1. Last November California voters approved Proposition 187, which denies most social services, medical benefits and public education to illegal immigrants. All in all, do you think it was a good thing or a bad thing that Proposition 187 was approved? All Whites Blacks Latinos Asians Good 53% 60% 52% 30% 49% Bad 40% 34% 39% 62% 46% Don't Know 7% 6% 9% 8% 5% doc934:usaimmg.xls poll on immigration @@Poor NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL HIDES HARM TO POOR? \clip\98\13\harmpoor.txt Does Immigration Harm the Poor? Steven A. Camarota, Center for Immigration Studies The Public Interest, Fall 1998, issue no. 133 " Immigrants have a negative fiscal impact for three reasons: First, they have more children than natives and so consume more in educational services. Second, immigrant households are poorer than native households and, therefore, receive more in state and locally funded income transfers. Third, because immigrant households have significantly lower incomes than native households, they pay less in taxes." @@Population Growth \clip\99\01\impop.txt Immigrants' Ranks Tripled In 29 Years By Gabriel Escobar Washington Post Staff Writer The Washington Post, Saturday, January 9, 1999; Page A01 Foreign Born The number of immigrants living in the United States has almost tripled since 1970. In millions 1930 14.3 1940 11.7 1950 10.4 1960 9.7 1970 9.6 1980 14.1 1990 19.8 1998 26.3 SOURCE: Center for Immigration Studies A new study of census data shows that the number of immigrants living in the United States has almost tripled since 1970, rising from 9.6 million to 26.3 million today and far outpacing the growth of the native-born population. IMMIGRANTS WILL BE HALF OF CA'S NEW GROWTH \CLIP\97\21\MIGNEWS.TXT MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 10 October, 1997 http://migration.ucdavis.edu The UCLA forecasting project expects California's population to increase from 32.6 million in 1997 to 34.3 million in 2000, and 47.4 million in 2020. About half of the additional 15 million residents over the next 23 years are expected to be immigrants. California's population grew 48 percent between 1950 and 1960; IMMIGRANTS 60% OF US POPULATION GROWTH \CLIP\97\21\MIGNEWS.TXT MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 10 October, 1997 A coalition of 37 environmental, population and immigration reduction organizations in August formed the Alliance for Stabilizing America's Population (ASAP) and called for sharp reductions in immigration to 100,000 per year, arguing that 60 percent of US population growth is due to immigration and the children of recent immigrants. @@Population, Immigrant %%Europe European foreign population in some countries Luxembourg* 33.4 % Switzerland 18.9 USA 9.6 Austria 9.0 Belgium 9.0 Germany 8.8 France 6.0 Sweden 5.2 Netherlands 5.0 Norway 4.2 Denmark 3.7 * Mostly European Union nationals from Blending In, Or Wiping Out?: Immigration Tests A European Society By Eugene Robinson The Washington Post, July 5, 1998, Page A1 %%United States \clip\98\07\forborn.txt report: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign.html U.S. Foreign-Born Population Grows The Associated Press , April 9, 1998 By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) - The 9.6 percent foreign-born in America today is the most since 1930, when 11.6 percent of U.S. residents were natives of another country. The share peaked at 14.7 percent in 1910 in the wake of the massive European immigration in the late 19th century. Arthur: I've seen many reports and studies that indicate that about 7-8% of the 266-million of us are foreign born. That includes illegals. That might be where the 20-million comes from. with an estimated 3-5 million illegals, that would leave 15-17-million legal immigrants and naturalized citizens. Raoul Lowery Contreras msk@us.net (Mark Krikorian) > According to the Current Population Survey, there should be more than 25 > million foreign-born people in the United States, not including the > undercount of illegal aliens. When that's taken into account, the total is > probably more like 26 million. The new INS estimates for the illegal > population (which hasn't yet been released) is about 5 million, which is > higher than the 1992 INS estimate would have predicted. Thus, that would > leave about 21 million people here legally. -- Mark @@Population Growth Immigration creates from half to two-thirds of population growth in the US by most estimates, the population increased by about 1 percent per year between 1980-90 If immigration continues at its present level, the U.S. population will grow to 387 million people by 2050 -- 124 million more than today, the panel said. 26 percent of Americans will be of Hispanic ancestry, growing from 27 million to 85 million by the year 2050. About 8 percent will be of Asian heritage, increasing from 9 million to 34 million. Immigration would account for about two-thirds of this growth. Source: The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration, National Academy Press Immigrants create over half of population growth in the US The population increased by 9.8% between 1980 and 1990, or about 1% per year \doc\95\14\immwelf1.txt "Majority of APAs New Arrivals, Census Says" Asian Week Sept 1, 1995 p. 9 Pct Foreign born 1900-1994 13.6 1900 ************** 14.7 1910 *************** 13.2 1920 ************* 11.6 1930 ************ 8.8 1940 *********<--- greatest since 1940 6.9 1950 ******* 5.4 1960 ***** 6.2 1980 ****** 7.9 1990 ******** 8.7 1994 ********* \priv\95\17\popimm.txt - International Immmigration and population growth paper \priv\95\15\popgrow.txt - Immigrants create more than half of population growth, even just births. @@Population Increase (Good) Contrary to the environmentalist population arguments, immigrants save cities like New York City by replacing residents who leave with harder working residents who work harder and complain less.. NEW IMMIGRANTS KEEP NEW YORK CITY VIBRANT INSTEAD OF DECLINING \clip\97\14\immny.txt tip from: msk@us.net (Mark Krikorian) Subject: Immigration to New York New Mix Enlivens N.Y. Melting Pot Immigrants Are Vital Tonic After Decades of Population Drain The Washington Post, Monday, May 26 1997 "New York demographers credit immigrants with heading off a potentially "catastrophic" population drain....Now, about a third of New Yorkers are foreign-born, with another 20 percent the offspring of new immigrants...by contrast, the District of Columbia despite sharp increases in its foreign-born population, has been unable to offset the even greater number of residents who have moved out" New Yorkers born outside the U.S. 1970: 18% 1990: 28% 1995: 33% By Blaine Harden and Jay Mathews Washington Post Staff Writers @@Poverty Immigrants overall have a higher poverty rate than average, that of immigrants since 1990 (in 1996) rival that of American blacks and Hispanic minorities. However, those arriving during the 70's have about equal, those before, better poverty rates than natives. US POVERTY RATE, 1996 Native-Born 12.9% Foreign-born (total) 22.2% Foreign-born arriving after '90 33.3% Foreign-born arriving 70's Foreign-born arriving before 70s 10.0% 1/21001 z47\clip\2001\cisrept.txt http://www.cis.org Immigrants in the United States -- 2000 First look at America's foreign-born population in the new century finds record numbers and growth * More than half of post-1970 immigrants and their young children live in or near poverty, compared to 28 percent of natives and their young children. FOREIGN BORN CITIZENS BETTER OFF THAN NATIVE BORN \clip\98\07\forborn.txt report: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign.html U.S. Foreign-Born Population Grows The Associated Press , April 9, 1998 By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) * Unemployment 8.4 percent for foreign-born noncitizens 5.4 percent of the native-born. 4.3 percent for foreign-born U.S. citizens * The poverty rate 26.8 percent for foreign-born noncitizens 12.9 percent for the native-born. 10.4 percent for foreign-born citizens http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/cb97-55.html 4/8/97 Economic Challenges Wane With Time Among The Nation's Foreign-Born Population ""For example, foreign-born people who came here during the 1970s had median personal incomes in 1995 no different than natives, about $17,000. Also, foreign-born people who arrived before 1970 were less likely than natives to be in poverty in 1995--10 percent compared with 13 percent." "6.3 percent of the foreign-born who entered after 1979 received some form of cash public assistance in 1995, the rates of the foreign born who have been here more than 15 years is no different from those of natives" Full report 5.Selected Characteristics of the Foreign-born Population by ">Citizenship and Selected Countries of Birth: 1996 (Countries: Mexico, Canada, El Salvador, Other Central America, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Other Caribbean, South America, Germany, Great Britain, Other Europe, China, India, Korea, Philippines, Vietnam, Other Asia) \CLIP\97\13\founder.txt Foundering In a Wave of Immigrants U.S. Prosperity Eludes Millions of Newcomers The Washington Post, Saturday, May 10 1997 By William Branigin and Pamela Constable Washington Post Staff Writers @@priest \priv\95\15\immprist.txt - Catholics are bringing priests from overseas to meet demand. @@prop 187 (california) >>\priv\95\18\187not.txt Business Week: December 4, 1995 Department: In Business This Week AN IMMIGRATION LAW ISN'T SO LEGAL \priv\95\16\p187impc.txt - impact has raised questions of schooling children of illegals, reducing legal immigration. @@Public Charge INS note on what qualifies as public charge * An alien will not be considered a "public charge" for using: - HEALTH CARE BENEFITS, including programs such as Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), prenatal care, or other free or low-cost medical care at clinics, health centers, or other settings (other than long-term care in a nursing home or similar institution) - FOOD PROGRAMS, such as Food Stamps, WIC (the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children), school meals, or other food assistance - OTHER PROGRAMS THAT DO NOT GIVE CASH, such as public housing, child care, energy assistance, disaster relief, Head Start, or job training or counseling * INS may consider an alien's use of the following in deciding whether to issue a "green card:" - CASH WELFARE, such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI), cash Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and state General Assistance - INSTITUTIONALIZATION for long-term care, such as residing in a nursing home or mental health facility at government expense @@race \doc\95\13\immrace.txt "Census shows 7% of state's residents are foreign-born" Aly Colon Seattle Times Aug 29, 1995 p. B3 paper filed 10-6-95 US WA 20.5 48.5 NonHispanic White 66% 55% Whites were largest racial group 20% 42% Asian 7% .8% Black 7% 2.2 Other 45.5 6.5 Hispanic 65.5 48.5 Asian or Hispanic @@recruit \doc\95\15\amheart.txt "America's Heartland Turns To Hot Location For The Melting Pot: Immigrants Seeking Work Are Key to Revitalizing A Small Minnesota Town; With Influx Comes Prejudice" Wall Street Journal 10-31-95 p. 1. Immigrants recruited to man pork processing plant changes town. @@reduction \doc\95\14\smitlet.txt - Smith letter explains why his bill is friendly to families and businesses. @@refugee \priv\95\07\lastwave.txt - Last wave of 900,000 boat people may be let in under proposed new law @@religion MISSIONARIES DID NOT SUPPORT EXCLUSION ON NON CHRISTIANS - WHO ARE THEY SUPPOSED TO CONVERT? d:\doc\96\08\relgexcl.txt Date sent: Sat, 14 Dec 1996 00:16:42 -0600 Send reply to: H-NET List on Ethnic History From: "H-Net Exec Director: Richard Jensen" Subject: missionaries opposed restrictions on immigration to US [x H-AmRel] To: Multiple recipients of list H-ETHNIC From: jay case I would like to add a note supporting Tim Tseng's comment that in considering the relationship between religion and immigration policy, one must account for missionaries and missionary advocates who opposed exclusionary immigration legislation - including evangelical missionaries who opposed Asian "idolatry" on theological grounds. In my current work on a dissertation that involves Baptist and Methodist missionary ideology in the 19th century I have not found any support for exclusionary immigration legislation and a good deal of opposition to it. This makes sense if one considers that a fundamental goal of missionary work involved contact with those who were not Christians. As a result, one comes across opposition to Chinese exclusion laws from seemingly strange places, like the 1886 issues of the _Western Recorder_, a southern Baptist newspaper from Louisville, Kentucky which strongly supported the missionary movement. I don't know of works that have specifically addressed the relationship between missionaries and immigrantion policy, but several books on immigrant groups have made side comments noting that missionaries opposed restrictive legislation. In Mexican Emigration to the United States, 1897-1931, Lawrence Cardoso demonstrates that Mexicans were not included among the ethnic groups who were restricted in the immigration laws passed in the early 1920s. Part of this stemmed from businessmen in the southwest who needed cheap Mexican labor, but part of it also came also from pressure from missionaries. Although this is not an instance of Asian exclusion, my impression is that it is consistent with missionary views of other immigrant groups. Jay Case University of Notre Dame @@reduction @@restriction \priv\95\14\lsmith.txt - Smith defends the bill, it's not xenophobic, and in national interest \doc\95\13\housepnl.txt Smith says they live on social security, not matched to high tech skills \doc\95\12\easecut.txt -Smith says reducing legal immigration will preserve jobs. \priv\95\04\immirest.txt - laws to restrict immigration @@remittances (from immigrants) \doc\web\97\03\remit.txt IMMIGRANT REMITTANCES EXCEED U.S. FOREIGN AID TO LATIN AMERICA U.S. Companies Profit From $4 Billion Business March 3, 1997, Claremont, Calif. A new study on the bi-national impact of Latino remittances to home countries has found that the percentage of an immigrant family's income that is sent to its home country annually has increased dramatically in the last decade. For more information about the report, call (909) 621-8897 or e-mail TRPI at trc@cgs.edu @@removals \clip\97\04\removal.txt From CISNEWS: Here is the AP story on the new statistics on removals (deportations, etc.), followed by the original INS press release. The most interesting part is that the INS is now tracking the number of people who are apprehended at worksite raids inside the country (i.e., not at the border) and agree to voluntary departure (and thus are not formally deported). \doc\96\03\insremov.txt - China accounts for less than 1% of removals compared to Canada, 124 vs. 177, and only 15 criminal vs. 123 Canadians Removals Top Nationalities in FY 1996 (Oct. 1995 - Feb. 1996) Country; Deport's; Exclus.;Total Removals; % of Total; Criminal; Non-Crim. ------- ------- ------ ------ ------- -------- -------- Mexico 13,510 5,707 19,217 76 10,231 8,986 Honduras 910 13 923 4 188 735 El Salvador 801 25 826 3 362 464 Guatemala 663 38 701 3 169 532 Dom. Republic 576 75 651 3 486 165 Colombia 381 77 458 2 395 63 Jamaica 324 73 397 2 354 43 Canada 77 100 177 1 123 54 Nicaragua 142 6 148 1 53 95 China (mainld) 9 115 124 0 15 109 Nigeria 83 36 119 0 98 21 Haiti 79 31 110 0 83 27 United Kingdom 91 10 101 0 64 37 Ecuador 47 31 78 0 36 42 Peru 56 16 72 0 41 31 Ghana 16 43 59 0 22 37 Pakistan 18 40 58 0 14 44 Trinidad and Tobago 50 6 56 0 51 5 Belize 39 7 46 0 33 13 Philippines 38 7 45 0 23 22 Other 662 288 950 4 462 488 -------------------------------------------------------------------- TOTAL 18,572 6,744 25,316 100 13,303 12,013 Source: Office of Policy and Planning, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service @@republican - Republicans generally welcome immigrants \priv\95\16\gopsplit.txt - GOP split on Smith immigration bill \priv\95\15\goptent.txt - full text \priv\95\15\immrep.txt - s (Oct. 30, 1995) New York Times ran a story on p. 11 about a N.Y. Times/CBS News poll with an immigration policy question (or questions). Of people who said they will vote in the upcoming Republican primaries, 55 percent said <>, whereas 43 percent said <>. @@rural \priv\96\13\NATNDIVI.HTM One Nation, Divisible Feb 1993 American Demographics "As a rule, the foreign-born stay away from rural areas. In fact, there are more than 50 counties in southern Virginia and Pennsylvania where fewer than 1 in 100 residents were born outside the U.S. First-generation immigrants who do leave cities are usually naturalized: in 9 rural and suburban Pennsylvania counties, for example, more than three-quarters of the foreign-born are citizens" @@sales Wall Street Journal Feb 14, 1997. Commerce Department reports that retail sales have increased from $180 billion in 1994 to $210 billion in 1997, seasonally adjusted. That's an increase of $10 billion dollars per year, or 5% per year. If we take the Center for Immigration studies estimate of net immigration of 800,000, that's equal to an increase in retail sales of $12,500 for each immigrant, and the 5% increase in retail sales exceeds the 3.2% increase in population due to immigration. That's not counting rent, health insurance, or taxes, or anything else that doesn't count as retail sales. @@scientist UNEMPLOYMENT OF 14% FOR MATH PHDS \clip\97\08\phdjob.txt Job market does number on PhDs in math, science The Boston Globe, March 17, 1997 "in science and math, the job shortage is exacerbated by the steady stream of foreign-born scientists entering the United States. US law allows in a virtually endless stream of foreign-born scientists and academics under what is known as the Einstein exemption. " "through much of this decade, mathematicians have experienced unemployment of more than 14 percent - more than twice the rate of the overall economy." MINORITIES OVER-REPRESENTED AMONG CANADA SCIENCE/ENG MANAGERS DUE TO ASIAN IMMIGRANTS http://www.theglobeandmail.com/docs/archive/19970106/MiddleKingdom/XMKAMA.html \clip\97\02\candiv.txt MIDDLE KINGDOM Toronto Globe and Mail HOW AND WHY THINGS HAPPEN AMAZING FACTS Bosses who aren't what you'd expect Monday, January 6, 1997 By Bruce Little Visible Minorities in Management in Canada 14% low-paid services managers 12% science and engineering (Asians?) $57,600 earnings 9% non-manager jobs 8% overall managers 1% post office Comment - Canada relies on immigrants even more than the US for its technical edge. It doesn't say so in the article, but Asians are the only "visible" minority that is over-represented in the natural science and engineering in the US, and therefore, also likely so in Canada. They would truly suffer if they cut off immigration of Chinese and Indian engineers. \clip\96\03\rocksci.txt german rocket scientist Wilhelm Angele RICHMOND, Va. (AP) -- Wilhelm Angele, a German-trained engineer and scientist who helped develop the American space program, died Thursday at age 91. \priv\96\20\aesfound.txt Sat, 8 Jun 1996 20:56:50 -0400 AKRON BEACON JOURNAL, OHIO, DIANE EVANS COLUMNWorld renowned chemist was born in Egypt. @@shortage of labor The growth of American industry is limited by the number of skilled workers it can create, not by a fixed market size, especially in fields like high tech were markets are limited only by exports. The question is not who will create jobs for immigrants, but how many immigrants can be brought in to jobs that could be created if only bodies could be found to fill them. Two studies show not only a national, but worldwide shortage so even outsourcing to India won't completely solve the problem. Norman Matloff says that the jobs would be filled even if there were no immigrants, but when jobs increase by 50% in 5 years, and 30% of the workforce in key companies are immigrants, it is mostly likely a false assumption that you can grow a workforce faster than native population growth just as fast without immigrants. \clip\97\24\short.txt MORE THAN A MILLION new computer scientists & engineers, systems analysts, and computer programmers will be needed in the U.S. between 1994 & 2005, according to a recent report from the Office of Technology Policy of the U.S. Department of Commerce. "America's New Deficit: The Shortage of Information Technology Workers" looks at... The full report is available in PDF only at: http://www.ta.doc.gov/otpolicy/reports.htm http://www.ta.doc.gov/reports/itsw/itsw.pdf Says software has the highest pay, and largest US dominance. IMMIGRATION CRUCIAL TO ECONOMIC GROWTH "Postive Sum Game" Wall Street Journal April 21, 1997 A18 editorial. F042197 March unemployment is down to 5.2%, causing Fed panic that unemployment is too low, but perhaps 5% is more reasonable instead of the old assumption that 6% was rock bottom for full-employment, even though 1.3 million new workers entered the workforce, employment expanded by 2.9 million in the past 12 months, the fastest since Reagan. Discouraged workers dropped to 356,000 from 451,000 (unemployed and not looking, they don't count Cindy's who are employed, but not looking for software jobs). Labor force participation is at an all-time high. 2/3 of Dutch and Belgians quit working by 55. "Falling birth rates threaten to devastate growth in the next century". Higher birth rates than projections will restore predictions of growth. "And a drop in births can be compensated by immigration. Historially, immigratn labor has fueled the American economy; despite the worst efforts of noisy nativists in California [like prof. Norman Matloff] and elsewhere, it almost certainly will continue to do so" TWO STUDIES POINTS IMMIGRANTS TO HELP SHORTAGE OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERS http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970407S0181 \clip\97\10\itshort.txt EE Times April 07, 1997 Industry association tallies 190k unfilled IT slots; software jobs go begging -- Surveys see shortages of software, IT people By Robert Bellinger The shortage of software programmers and information-technology people is acute and growing more so, two recent studies have found. They point to a series of developments of interestto computer scientists, computer engineers and EEs. The studies, by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) and the Stanford Computer Industry Project, each looked to immigration as a potential solution to the shortages. ------------------------------------------------------ JOB BOOM FINDS HARD TO FIND ENTRY LEVEL PEOPLE \clip\97\08\jobboom.txt http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/chronicle/article.cgi?file=MN23843.DTL&directory=/chronicle/archive/1997/03/24 Monday, March 24, 1997 · Page A17 © 1997 San Francisco Chronicle Down Side Of Peninsula Job Boom Tough to find people to work at entry level Mark Simon The Peninsula remains the state's employment juggernaut, according to the latest job figures, and that's creating problems for employers who see entry-level work go wanting. ------------------------------------------------------- \clip\97\08\eebach.htm \clip\97\08\eebach.gif Chart: "EE bachelor's degrees have declined steadily since 1987" * = 5,000 1980 14,000 *** 1987 25,000 ***** 1994 16,000 *** Source: US Department of Education Statistics Electronic Engineering Times March 10, 1997 p. 137

Higher pay for fewer grads
BETHLEHEM, PA. BSEE graduate salaries are rising at a rapid clip. Last September, the National Association of Colleges and Employers reported that the average starting salaries for BSEEs was $38,025.
Now, NACE is pegging EE offers at $39,224, up 3 per cent in only six months. Demand is up, supply is down ----------------------------------------------------------------- AMERICA SUFFERING FROM GLUT OF PROGRAMMERS? OR SHORTAGE? local: c:\clip\97\07\nerds\nerds.txt Business Week 3/10/97 web: http://www.businessweek.com/1997/10/b351757.htm HELP WANTED: CALLING ALL NERDS Norman Matloff scoffed reports that computer science degrees are down " Undergraduate degrees earned in computer science dipped 43% from 1986 to 1994. That's partly because of a glut of programmers in the mid-1980s and partly due to American students' well-documented aversion to math." "Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) estimates that 190,000 info-tech jobs stand vacant in U.S. companies--half in the information industry" ------------------------------------------ CS UNEMPLOYMENT AT 0.8% "FULL EMPLOYMENT", HIRING UP 17% IN 1996 Comment - and Norm Matloff continues to use a labor "surplus" to attack Chinese immigrants? If 0.8% unemployment and 17% growth isn't a labor shortage, what is? \doc\web\97\02\enghire.txt (c)image \clip\97\03\enghire.gif "Engineer hires topping out?" Electrical Engineering Times Jan 27, 1997 p. 87 Bob Bellinger ------------------------------------------------- AUSTRALIA "DEPENDENT" ON IMMIGRANT ENGINEERS \clip\96\12\engshort.txt Australia reports a shortage of engineers, recommends training more natives to reduce "dependence" on immigrants. ------------------------------------------------- CS SALARIES RISE 5-6%, ONLY 1/2 AS MANY CS GRADS AS 1986 \clip\96\10\csgrad.txt "Demand for CS Grads Soars" Electrical Engineering Times Dec 2, 1996 p. 102. Starting CS salaries have increased 5-6% over the past 3 years, outpacing inflation, and college are producing only slightly more than half as many CS grads as the peak 10 years ago. Contrary to claims by Norman Matloff that MS degrees have no value, EE Times surveys shows masters paid $4400-$4700 (7%) more per year \clip\96\02\fullem.txt \PRIV\96B\08\FULLEMP.TXT Electrical Engineering Times July 19, 1996 EE's at full employment BY ROBERT BELLINGER Union, N.H.-The electronics engineering segment was essentially at full employment" last quarter, with an unemployment rate of 1 percent, according to "Engineering Manpower Newsletter." file:C:\priv\96B\07\NEWHIRE.HTM You're Fired, Er Hired Time Magazine 7/8/96 With companies downsizing their payrolls by 3 million jobs since 1990, a labor shortage would seem to be corporate America's most unlikely problem. Yet, from engineer slots at Raytheon to bankteller positions in Chicago, thousands of jobs are going begging. U.S. employers are having so much trouble filling openings that they are offering big bonuses, lowering standards and even stealing workers from competitors to get more help. \priv\96b\05\labshort.txt Small business survey says 25% can't grow because they can't find qualified people. \priv\96\01\workfill.txt SJM 1/10/96 Chip boom killing supply Semiconductor industry scrambles to find enough workers to fill demand @@Sierra Club Environmentalist organization considering reducing immigration Sierra Club rejects bid to oppose immigration. conducted a reader poll on the Sierra Club's membership vote Poll for week of March 10, 1998: The Sierra Club is now voting on whether to adopt a formal policy advocating a "reduction in net immigration" to the U.S. in order to reduce population growth to protect the environment. Do you agree with the proposed policy? The results: 56% Yes 44% No http://www.motherjones.com/poll/results.html @@simpson bill \priv\96\04\simp2.txt - employment based provisions will be dropped. @@skill mismatch >>d:\priv\96\01\econtren.doc Business Week Oct 9, 1995 p. 30 Economic Trends BY GENE KORETZ. 19.7 million increase in jobs between 1983 and 1993. 29% of jobs were in top 25% of pay, but so did the bottom 25%. Some post-secondary school skills were required for 45% of new jobs created since 1983, but only 33% of new jobs filled. (Note that this means in contrast to charges of labor mismatch, immigrants tend to be either very highly educated, or very unskilled) @@Skills Preference [of 1.2 million newcomers] "Fewer than 5 percent were admitted because of their job skills, which made them eligible for visas sponsored by U.S. employers to meet particular demands." \CLIP\97\13\founder.txt Foundering In a Wave of Immigrants U.S. Prosperity Eludes Millions of Newcomers The Washington Post, Saturday, May 10 1997 By William Branigin and Pamela Constable Washington Post Staff Writers @@smuggling \clip\97\09\immsmug.txt 4/14/97 Copyright U.S. News & World Report, Inc. All rights reserved. Why smuggling aliens into America is a boom business BY GORDON WITKIN \priv\95\20\aliesmug.txt -AP 26 Dec 95 16:14 EST V0307 Arrests Expected In Alien Ring Canales' ring smuggled at least 10,000 people a year, many of them Chinese and Indians, into the United States through Central America, according to reports. @@softpac Softpac Home Page \priv\96\02\softpac.txt Joint statement on protecting domestic engineers. \priv\95\18\softpac.txt VOA on Softpac \priv\95\14\impol.txt David Chiang says that IBM has laid off lots of people, but jobs were lost to internal competition, not immigrants, and immigrants keep US industry strong. Response is that he quit to start softpac, and knows indian immigrants who lost jobs to h-1B workers. @@Somali \clip\97\29\somfight.txt Cultures clash within Crawford's melting pot Somalian students find few friends on campus San Diego Union-Tribune, Sunday, November 30, 1997 Jeanne F. Brooks STAFF WRITER @@Sowell, Thomas This neoconservative is against affirmative action, but wishy washy on immigration. Immigration Forbes June 2 Don't bend the laws for immigration, let them assimilate. @@sponsor \clip\97\16\sponsor.txt U.S. Tightening Rules to Sponsor Immigrants Los Angeles Times, June 30, 1997 "Federal officials are nearing completion of controversial new rules that will greatly restrict the ability of many low-income legal immigrants residing in Southern California and elsewhere to bring in spouses, children, parents and other loved ones from their homelands. In addition, the new regimen departs radically from longtime practice by requiring that U.S. sponsors assume full legal and financial responsibility for their family members who immigrate into the United States." \priv\96b\05\sponsr.txt Los Angeles Times, June 25, 1996 Congress: Some say proposals would keep families divided. Public health care might also be denied. Sponsor complain that they can't afford proposed minimum income, or private health insurance if medicaid is denied to immigrants. @@State In western states, most population growth is from other states, then natural, immigration is last Seattle Times Aug 14, 2000 Goal is to stop growth 1990 1999 pct oncrease Int mig Nat Interstate Ore 2842337 3,316,154 16.79 16% 41% 43% Wash 4,866,669 5,756,361 18.3 14% 29% 57% @@statistics - see illegal and IRCA also Below please find the link to a new report titled, "HISTORICAL CENSUS STATISTICS ON THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES: 1850 TO 1990." http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0029/twps0029.html \clip\97\10\caimm.txt http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/chronicle/article.cgi?file=MN16524.DTL&directory=/chronicle/archive/1997/04/09&arrows=yes San Francisco Chronicle Wednesday, April 9, 1997 · Page A14 Immigrant Numbers Highest in California 25% in state are foreign-born, report says Foreign-born in the U.S. Percent of U.S. population who were immigrants, from 1900 to 1996 1910 14.7% 1970 4.8% 1996 9.3% Where the foreign-born come from Region of birth of the immigrants in 1996 Mexico 27.2% Asia 26.7% Europe 16.9% Caribbean 10.5% Central America 7% South America 4.9% Canada 2.7% Elsewhere 2.6% Other 1.6% From (CIS) Immigration Review, No. 27, Fall/Winter, 1996-97 \clip\97\05\immfig.txt Legal Immigration: FY 1995 and Preliminary FY 1996 Fiscal Years: FY 1995; Prelim. FY 1996 Family-Based: 460,376; 595,000 Immediate Relative: 222,254; 302,000 Family Preference: 238,122; 293,000 Employment-Based: 85,336; 118,000 Diversity: 47,245; 58,000 Humanitarian and Other 123,237; 140,000 Total Legal Immigration* 716,194; 911,000 * Totals do not include amnestied aliens. SOURCE: INS http://www.wisc.edu/history/404tja/t2ins.html Immigration by Region and Selected Country of Last Residence: Fiscal Years, 1820-1994 from INS yearbook, excel5 files \doc\96\04\imm94.txt Detailed breakdown of 1994 immigration by category of admission. \doc\96\04\imm6191.wk1 From US Statistical Abstract, No. 8. Immigrants, by Country of Birth: 1961 to 1991 How much immigration was there in 1995? According to the Center for Immigration Studies, Wash DC Annual legal immigration 1995 720,000 Projected legal 1996 1 million Net annual leg+ill immigration: 1 million Net annual increase in foreign born, including students and temporary: over 1 million Annual Increase in illegal population 300,000 Annual illegal inflow over 400,000 est outflow of US residents 200,000 Immigration - emigration 1995 800,000 Analysis by Arthur Hu - percent of population increase Cause Number %total %increase Immigration - emigration 1995 800,000 29% 3.2% Net births - deaths 1991 1,946,000 71% 7.7% Total population increase 2,746,000 100% 10.9% -------------------------------------------------------------- Source: INS, cited by San Jose Mercury News May 30, 1993 Who qualified for entry in 1991? 25% Family sponsoered 61% Amnesty 6% Refugees 3% Work related 1% Asylees 3% Other 8 times as many immigrants come as family sponsored rather than work related, most likely the largest source of new engineers. \priv\95\11\migrnews.txt - 8% of pop, est 17% of immigrants are illegal, 31% are naturalized. \priv\95\11\immclass.txt - Census report says immigrants are 8.7% of the population, highest since WWII, pre-1970 immigrants have lower rates of poverty and welfare, new immigrants are higher. \doc\95\10\imm95.txt Center for Immigration Studies estimates 1.1 million immigrants 1994 300,000 net illegal immigration 800,000 legal immigration 1.1 million apprehensions 5.4 million total illegal immigrants (about 20%) 9% of population is foreign born 8% in 1990 5% in 1970 and 1960 \priv\95\07\secthou.txt Richard Kirschten, "Second Thoughts" *National Journal* 1/21/95 pp 150-55. - Experts say about 4 million illegal aliens, 1.5% of population - 1.1 million immigrants estimated, 700,000 legal, 110,000 refugees, 300,000 illegally - Less than 10 percent of population is foreign born, about one-third are naturalized citizens. \doc\95\06\ins92.doc, ins92.xls - Immigration figures by year and country based on the official yearbook \priv\95\08\leglimm.txt - 1994 Immigration \doc\96\01\ins80s.wk1 1992 INS Yearbook p. 25 US Immigration 1981-90 Immigration to the US 1971-80 4,498,314 or 449,831 per year 1981-90 7,338,062 1981 596,600 1982 594,131 1983 559,763 1984 543,903 1985 570,009 1986 601,708 1987 601,516 1988 643,025 1989 1,090,924 1990 1,536,483 1991 1,827,167 1992 973,977 1983-92 8,948,475 compared to 19.7 million more jobs from 1983-1993 Business Week Oct 9, 1995 p. 30 1973-1995 14.4 million vs. 35 million net new jobs Economist 3/9/96, Lester Thurow @@stay \clip\96\08\studretn.txt AP - chinese student return because government does not allow spouse or family to leave china. d:\priv\95\19\forstay.txt - Less than half of foreign students who earned PhD's in the 80s were working in the US, 41-42% of those on temporary visas and 48-49 of who graduated as permanent residents. @@Suicide HMONG WOMAN COMMITS SUICIDE AFTER LOSING FOOD STAMPS Asian Week Feb 19, 1998 p. 7 Reform hits hard -- Chia Yay Hmong woman commits suicide when the USDA cut off her food stamps. There are also suicides reported in Fresno, Wisconsin, where 35-45% remain on federal assistance. ANOTHER ONE FOR MATLOFF'S CONSCIENCE. "Suicide Shows Why Welfare Fight Persists: Immigrant's Death Raises Questions Over Cuts in Aid" Wall Street Journal April 22, 1997 p. A2 F042397. A Mexican born laborer who was living on $236 in Social Security and $400 of SSI committed suicide after receiving a warning that the government would cut off his SSI payments. He was not a sponsored immigrant, nor a refugee, and had not applied for citizenship. @@surplus of labor Don't believe all you read about shortages Robert Bruce \clip\97\13\short.txt http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970512S0053 May 12, 1997, Issue: 953 Section: OP-ED. There's no shortage if companies could be forced to hire mid-career people with military backgrounds? MICROSOFT GETS 120,000 APPLICATIONS A YEAR, BUT NOT EVIDENCE OF A LABOR "SURPLUS" \DOC\WEB\97\02\intelgath.txt "Intelligence Gathering" Contract Professional Jan 1997 p. 45: review of "The Microsoft Way: The Real Story of How the Company Outsmarts Its Competition" By Randall E. Stross Addison Wesley, $25 Only a tiny fraction of 120,000 applicants who approach the company each year are hired. (Norman Matloff presents this as his only numerical "evidence" of a labor surplus - it only proves that lots of people want to work at Microsoft, not that lots of people are out ot work) @@Survey z47\clip\2001\cisrept.txt http://www.cis.org Immigrants in the United States -- 2000 First look at America's foreign-born population in the new century finds record numbers and growth WASHINGTON (January 3, 2001) -- A new report by the Center for Immigration Studies finds that 28.4 million immigrants now live in the United States, the largest number ever recorded in the nation's history, and a 43 percent increase since 1990. The report finds that as a share of the nation's total population, immigrants now account for more than 1 in 10 residents (10.4 percent), the highest percentage in 70 years. As a percentage of the U.S. population, immigrants have more than doubled, from 4.7 percent in 1970 to 10.4 percent in 2000. The 11.2 million immigrants who indicated they arrived between 1990 and 2000 plus the 6.4 million children born to immigrants in the United States during the 1990s are equal to roughly two-thirds of U.S. population growth over the last 10 years. * In 2000, 37.4 percent of immigrants are naturalized citizens, and immigrants account for 5.5 percent of all eligible voters. * More than half of post-1970 immigrants and their young children live in or near poverty, compared to 28 percent of natives and their young children. * One-third of immigrants do not have health insurance -- two and one-half times the rate for natives. * Immigration accounts for virtually all of the national increase in public school enrollment over the last two decades. * Study hints that we don't need any more low-education immigrants. @@sweatshop \priv\95\09\immraids.txt - illegal immigrants held as virtual prisoners in sweatshop raid. @@Tal Disgruntled Israeli who is against H-1 immigrants. As a former H-1B alien, having seen the mix in several different groups, I can dissent your opinion and aprove that the non-citizen workers are absolutely abused. http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/9302/main.htm http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/9302/how.htm http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/9302/why.htmSincerely,Doron--- Doron A. Tal Retired Physicist 4x4xm since 1964 69a Ramim St. Fighting corruption in Israel and elsewhere Karmiel 21862 e-mail: ilatal@ort.org.il, Stop_Abuse@Geocities.com Israel http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/9302 @@taxes People (mostly immigrants) without SS numbers need a ITIN \clip\97\04\fortaxid.txt Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) Required for Some Taxpayers OAKLAND, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Feb. 6, 1997--Individuals not eligible for a Social Security Number will need to apply to obtain an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN), from the Internal Revenue Service, in order to file a 1996 tax return. @@temporary workers \clip\96\02\hightemp.txt Date: Wed, 31 Jul 1996 13:54:00 -0400 High-Tech Firms Rely More On New Breed of Temp Worker Via AP By OMAR L. GALLAGA The Wall Street Journal @@Turkish DANES RESTRICT ARRANGED MARRIAGES FOR TURKS z47\clip\2000\12\turkim.txt For 'New Danes,' Differences Create a Divide http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/18/world/18MIGR.html December 18, 2000 CROSSING BORDERS By ROGER COHEN @@unaccompanied minors \priv\95\14\impol.txt Matloff says there are 30,000 Chinese "unaccompanied minors" (this is the official euphemism) in the U.S. @@unemployment Common wisdom: Immigration makes unemployment worse Reality: Cities with high immigration have the lowest rates. - Two jobs were created for each immigrant from 1983-1993 - Different studies show that jobs in software create 3 to 5 jobs in the overall industry - Immigrants are best represented in fastest and largest growing job fields - The rate of unemployment has been falling since the 70's overall despite immigration [[create jobs ----------------------------------------------------------------- The job market is booming, immigrants help fill increasing demands in fastest growing fields and expand the economy, especially in high tech, without inflation. * In 1997, in Washington state, only Boeing and associated aerospace industries hired more workers than the software industry, dominated by Microsoft where 30-40% of new programmers are immigrants. * Only 6% of new computer programmers came from foreign countries in 1987 or 1997. Nearly half now come from other disciplines, or formerly unemployed workers. * High tech and biomedical are fields with a high percentage of exports Software is #2 industry after aerospace in Washington state, high tech has become the largest employer in Washington and Oregon, displacing natural resources. * Computer science and computer engineering have the highest paying jobs with a bachelors degree * Software employment has increased by 50% in just 5 years. Computer jobs are projected to increase by another 50% in 5 years. In Washington State, software employment has more than doubled, up 122% from 1990 to 1996, 4 times the national industry rate of growth (that would still be 30%) * The percentage of people working or seeking work is at a historic high of 66.9% The unemployment rate is at a historic low at just about 5% or full employment. Unemployment among computer science people is only 0.8% * The overall economy creates two jobs for every immigrant. In software, one job creates 3 to 5 new jobs. One writer in the New Republic said that huddled masses need jobs, and the common assumption is that immigrants take away scarce jobs. Yet if you measure how many jobs are lost for each immigrant, the answer is that, on average, two jobs are CREATED for each immigrant. It is instructive that in April 1973, an ad for ITT supporting free trade predicted that the economy would add 27 million new jobs by 1990. In fact, 40 percent more, or 38 million jobs were actually created from 1973 to 1994. 19.7 million were created in the decade from 1983-93 alone, over twice the number of 8,948,475 immigrants who arrived during 1983-92 * No one disputes that Chinese immigration into Canada has been an economic boon to Canada. * Since 1994, 3/4 of 5.6 million new jobs were managerial or professional. How can that be? Well, if you think about it, if every immigrant took away one job, there wouldn't be any jobs left, but instead the economy has expanded and become stronger with immigration. Neighborhoods that were dying and in decline would not be revitalized by immigrants. When an unskilled mexican women cleans houses or watches children, it allows women like Marcia Clark to work, creating two jobs. When Jerry Yang or Charles Wang founds a company that hires dozens or thousands of employees, that also creates jobs. --------------- z62\clip\2002\12\vietimm.txt http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/immigrat/fallowf.htm Through the past decade, unemployment has been low in the very places where immigration, legal and illegal, has been the greatest: California, Florida, Texas. Urban Institute's study of Southern California reported that the region's unemployment rates for all races and age groups were lower than the national average, and that the difference between rates for whites and for non-whites was less than elsewhere November 1983 Immigration: How It's Affecting Us BY James Fallows \clip\98\05\labus.txt From: dchiang@juno.com L.A. Getting Boost From Asian Immigrants Los Angeles Business Journal 27-FEB-98 By Larry Kanter [Los Angeles economy now based on minority / immigrant owned small businesses] \clip\98\04\itmanp.txt here: http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19980119S0008 Electrical Engineering Times January 19, 1998, Issue: 989 Work-force conference spotlights issue, as new stats show shortfall is worse than thought -- Government tackles IT manpower shortage Robert Bellinger Government tackles IT manpower shortage Electrical Engineering Times Jan 19, 1998 p. 11 Jobs in US economy 1996 2006 Programmer 567 667 Engineers and Scientist 427 912 Systems Analyst 506 1025 Bureau of Labor Statistics, overall 114% growth rate. Cites matloff paper "debunking the myth" NSF report to the nation, where new programmers are coming from: Source of new workers% 1987 1996 CS grads 67% 37% Other (Crossover) 27% 41% Foreign 6% 6% Former Unemployed - 11% The IEEE predicts 28 percent expansion in demand for EEs by the year 2007 (10 yrs) and 40 percent for computer engineers, computer scientists and systems analysts. JOBS GROWING TWICE AS FAST AS POPULATION \clip\97\17\labforc.txt "One of the big national economic issues is how long the U.S. labor force, now numbering 129.4 million workers and 6.8 million people actively seeking work, can continue growing at this faster rate of 2 percent a year." That's about half the population, the population only grew at 1% per year between 1980-1990 New York Times July 10, 1997 Labor Force Growing at Almost Twice Its Normal Rate HI TECH / COMPUTERS HAS THE MOST JOB INCREASE "Where the Good Jobs Are" Business Week Oct 13, 1997 Shows over 500,000 new jobs in high tech, more than education or any other field ================================================================== WELFARE REFORM SHOWS THERE'S MORE UNSKILLED WORK FOR WELFARE GRADUATES "From Dole to Payroll" Business Week May 5, 1997 p. 30 f052797 macroeconomic Advisers LLC in St. Louis found that the employment ratio increased from 61% in 1991 to 66.2% in 1996 in states with early welfare reforms where the national average was just 63.4%. Adding such workers (as with immigrants) allowed strong growth without inflation. So much for the "economy will not expand to accomodate more workers" foundation of the anti-immigration movement. ECONOMY HAS CREATED NEARLY TWICE AS MANY JOBS AS HAVE BEEN LOST SINCE 1980 US News 5/26/97 The new economy Winners and losers are being created with a vengeance BY WILLIAM J. HOLSTEIN \clip\97\13\newecon.txt \clip\97\13\newecon\newecon.htm http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/970526/26grow.htm "Since 1980, the U.S. economy lost some 43 million jobs through downsizing and other structural changes. Economists call them "sunset jobs." In their place, analyst Horace W. Brock has pointed out, 71 million new jobs have been created. That's a net gain of 28 million jobs...Some 60 percent of all jobs in the United States in 1950 were unskilled, according to Timothy Parks, president of the Pittsburgh Regional Alliance. That has shrunk to about 25 percent today and will shrink further to 15 percent by the year 2000." ========================================================= SOFTWARE #2 IN NEW HIRING AFTER BOEING IN WA STATE http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/jobs_052197.html \clip\97\13\lowunem.txt The Seattle Times Company Wednesday, May 21, 1997 Low regional jobless rate is making it easier to find work by Alex Fryer Seattle Times business reporter Norman Matloff says that computer people find it hard to get jobs, but they have the easiest time "Even liberal-arts grads with little formal computer training are finding companies lining up to take their resumes, said Dr. Jean Hernandez". He says that companies like Microsoft that hire lots of immigrants don't create jobs, but software is the #2 source of new jobs. =============================================================== SOFTWARE REPLACES SAWMILL JOBS \clip\97\12\sawmill.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/mill_050197.html Seattle Times Thursday, May 1, 1997 Saws may go silent at the last mill on Lake Washington by Keith Ervin Seattle Times Eastside business reporter "From 1988 to 1995, the number of Washington jobs in lumber and forest products fell from 41,700 to 35,500 while the number of people producing pre-packaged software - just one kind of computer product - grew from 3,700 to 17,500. [an increase of 5 times in 7 years]" ================================================= COMPUTER PEOPLE FIND JOBS FIRST Engineering vs. liberal arts New graduates find more jobs, better salaries with technical majors From Correspondent John Defterios April 28, 1997: 11:17 a.m. ET Yahoo! Jobs NEW YORK (CNNfn) - Columbia University seniors Dan Evans and Michael Cook represent two different ends of the job search spectrum. With a month until graduation, one has several job offers in hand, while the other still searches. =================================================================== IMMIGRANTS? JOB GROWTH HAS ALWAYS OUTPACED POPULATION GROWTH IN THE CENTURY " Job growth has outpaced population growth over the century, despite great changes in the types of jobs available. " Note the author wrote the famous book arguing against immigration. \CLIP\97\09\JOBGROW.TXT May 6, 1996 Copyright Forbes Inc. 1996 © Issue Date May 6, 1996 What happened to all those blacksmiths? By Peter Brimelow The Chinese Are A Financial Boon To Vancouver BC The Chinese are recreating Hong Kong in the Vancouver suburb of Richmond, where it is estimated that one in 3 residents is an immigrant from Taiwan or Hong Kong. In 1987, only 1% but now 43% of students are enrolled in English As A Second Language classes. This year, Canada will accept 225,000 immigrants, proportionally three times as many as the United States. There is little dispute that Canada's relatively generous immigration policy has been a boon to Vancouver, and saved British Columbia from the sluggish performance of the rest of Canada. There are not Pat Buchanans [or Norman Matloffs] calling for keeping "Jose" out. Source: "Uncertain Canadians" Seattle Times Pacific Magazine Feb 23, 1997. Filed \doc\97\02\richmond.txt ------------------------------------------------------------- IMMIGRANTS HELP BUILD 2 OF THE 5 LARGEST STOCK VALUE CORPORATIONS IN THE US, INTEL AND MICROSOFT, NORTHWEST WEALTH GROWTH \doc\web\97\02\nortstok.txt "Northwest Stocks: They Keep Growing and Growing" Seattle Times Feb 16, 1997 p. E1. Microsoft is the Northwest's largest company in stock value, and the fifth largest in the nation. Only GE, Coca Cola, INTEL and Exxon are larger, and larger than Johnson & Johnson, Proctor and Gamble and AT&T. Microsoft alone accounts for 54% of the increase in all northwest stock value. IMMIGRANT ENGINEERS MAKE 9.6% ANNUAL JOB GROWTH POSSIBLE, AND WAGES ARE RISING, NOT FALLING. Seattle Times Feb 16, 1997 p. E1 "A Quick Look at Wages" Between 1987 and 1994, employment in the software industry grew at an annual rate of 9.6% compared to only 1.6% in the overall economy according to the Business Software Alliance in Washington, and it was 11.5% in 1995. Even as jobs expanded, workers wages have risen. Salaries for mid to upper level managers have risin 30-40% in only 3 years. ======================================================================== HIGH TECH IMMIGRANTS BRING BOOM WHILE OTHER CITIES DECLINE \doc\97\02\hoqiam.txt "Hoquiam: Orphan In a Booming Economy" Seattle Times Feb 2, 1997 p. 1 The opposite of a booming economy with population and job growth is ghost town and economic collapse where everyone has moved out and businesses and towns are dying. Immigrants produce growth and ideas and exports. Grays Harbor is dependent on declining natural resources industries. Contrast this to a series on the booming Seattle Eastside communities around Microsoft where businesses and housing is being built like crazy. High tech just took over as the biggest sector from natural resources in the state, immigrant high tech workers are key to creation of good export jobs. Norman Matloff's myopic and racist strategy of reserving work only for natives will only strangle growth. \doc\web\97\02\washjob.txt IMMIGRANT ENGINEERS DON'T CREATE JOBS? MICROSOFT IMMIGRANTS CREATE 3.4 JOBS EACH VS. 2.8 AT BOEING, OR EVEN 5 JOBS Summary: "Software Industry in 1997: Mostly Small Companies" Washinton CEO January 1997 p. 32 Software is the #2 industry in WA state, companies are growing at 25% a year, wages are at $59,000, technology is 25% of the entire economy and the largest sector, different studies computed that software jobs create 3 to 5 jobs elsewhere in the economy. ------------------------------------------------------------- ECONOMY GENERATES SO MANY JOBS A RECORD 66.9% ARE WORKING IMMIGRATION AND MIGRATION DRIVE PROSPERITY http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/econ_010597.html \clip\97\01\roar90.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Jan. 5, 1997 The Roaring Nineties Puget Sound region is booming again by Leyla Kokmen and Lee Moriwaki Seattle Times business reporters MIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION DRIVES JOB GROWTH AT MICROSOFT \doc\97\01\msempl.txt "The Roaring Nineties" Seattle Times Jan 5, 1997 p. 1 Microsoft employment 1988 1992 1996 2,615 7,010 11,143 Migration will account for bulk of the 400,000 population growth from the current 5.5 million people in the state MATLOFF SAYS POPULATION GROWTH IS BAD, SEATTLE TIMES SAYS IT DRIVES PROSPERITY \clip\97\01\goodnews.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Jan. 8, 1997 Good economic news makes doubters believe http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/econed_010897.html Employment opportunities are booming around Puget Sound, and not just in highly skilled computer, engineering and machinist jobs at the region's largest employers. MATLOFF'S LABOR SURPLUS?? SOFTWARE EMPLOYMENT UP 1.5 TIMES FROM 92 TO 97 url: http://www.businessweek.com/1997/02/b3509122.htm file: \clip\97\01\software\software.htm "Software" Business Week January 13, 1997 p. 104. f010797-1 Charts show that output, including data processing, increased from 128 to 180.7 billion dollars between 1992 and 1997, employees went from 0.91 to 1.41 million workers, while dollar productivity fell slightly from 141.1 to 127.9 thousand dollars per employee. This shows how Norman Matloff's claim of a zero sum game where immigrants displace natives, and there is a labor surplus is just a fraud. When employment increases by 50% in just 5 years, growth is limited only by the number of people with skills to fill the jobs, cutting off qualified people will only reduce the number of jobs that can be filled and harm industry and consumers alike. Also note that software already employed more than hardware in 1992, and output will exceed hardware in 1997. Computers and chips Software 1992 1997 1992 1997 Output 56.7 168.1 128.0 180.7 employment 0.58 0.58 0.91 1.41 productivity 98.4 289.4 141.1 127.9 Global software market (IDC) = $121.4 billion Mainframe software market = $21 billion Microsoft sales $11.6 billion Internet sales est 1996 $1 billion 1997 $3 billion PCs use 40% of all semiconductor output, 2/3 of memory chips JUST FIVE SILICON VALLEY IMMIGRANT COMPANIES CREATED 32,000 DIRECT JOBS url: http://www.forbes.com/forbes/110496/5811210a.htm clip: \clip\96\10\needimpt.txt magazine: "A needed import: entrepreneurial spirit" By Damon Darlin Forbes Nov 4, 1996 Hungarian-born Andrew Grove started Intel Corp. Immigrant engineers founded or co-founded Sun Microsystems, Cirrus Logic, Oracle, Solectron and Lam Research. Together these five companies have created some $45 billion in wealth and 32,000 jobs. --------------------------------------------------------------- MOST NEW JOBS IN HIGH PAYING CATEGORIES IN SERVICES, MIDWEST HAS TIGHTEST JOB MARKET, FEWEST IMMIGRANTS. \doc\96\07\flipside.txt "The Flip Side of Downsizing" Nation's Business, Oct 1996 p. 18. Labor markets are tightest in the midwest (the fewest immigrants to fill jobs) 68% of net growth in in full time jobs in Feb 94- Feb 96 were in categories that were paying above average wages. In service industries, job growth was in managerial or professional specialty jobs in financial services and software companies. e:\clip\96\03\highboom.txt AP 31-Aug-1996 12:00 EDT REF5172 High Tech Jobs Boom in NYC By KATHLEEN SAMPEY Associated Press Writer. NYC has one of the highest percentages of immigrants in the country, yet high tech jobs are booming. \priv\96b\08\knowjob.txt Chicago Tribune says computer jobs will be the fastest growing field. "In some areas, such as Internet-related jobs, Christian says, job creation will be 100 percent annually.He also predicts that 20 percent of the jobs created in the next four years will go unfilled unless many of today's workers are retrained. " \priv\96b\hitech.txt. Software is the #2 export industry in WA after aircraft, at $6 billion total. Since 1990, the number of software employees has risen 122 percent, nearly four times the industry's national job-growth rate for the same period. Comment - by allowing such fast growth, immigrants actually bring in money from exports rather than taking jobs from "Americans". "Schools Brief: One Lump or Two" Economist Nov 25, 1995 p. 67. Argues that it is wrong to try to spread around a fixed number of jobs instead of keeping everyone employed in an expanding economy, such as shorter workweeks. Unemployment has dropped from nearly 10 to just over 5 percent since the 70's despite immigration. \doc\96\03\futrcap.txt "Apocolypse Now" Economist mar 9, 1996 p. 88 Review of "The Future of Capitalism: How Today's Economic Forces Shape Tommorow's World" Lester Thurow. William Morrow; 385 pages $25 The whole of Western Europe didn't generate a single net new job 1973 to 1994 compared to 38 million net new jobs in 1973 to 1994 >> \priv\96\05\asimbols.doc \priv\96\05\asimbols.doc Asian Immigrants Help Bolster U.S. Economy, New Report Says New York Times March 31, 1996 By CAREY GOLDBERG SAN FRANCISCO, March 30 _ From Cambodian doughnut-shop owners to Chinese electronics engineers, Asian immigrants do far more good than harm to the nation's economy, a new report says. asian.immigration.for >>\priv\96\05\hipay.doc Seattle Times March 14, 1996 p. A2 High-paying jobs being created - low ones too BY JONATHAN PETERSON AND STUART SLVERSTEIN Los Angeles Times Since the start of 1994, more than three-fourths of the 5.6 million new jobs were managerial and professional, according to a new U.S. Labor Department report. [A. Hu note - immigrants contributed to this job growth by making labor available rather than crowding out natives] >>\doc\96\02\occgrow.wk1 Fastest and Greatest Growing Occupations are Often Filled by Immigrants * has many immigrants Number Fastest Growing Occupations 1994 % change Personal and home-care aides 179 119 Home health aides 420 102 systems analysts* 483 92 computer engineers* 195 90 physical and corrective therapy ass/aid 78 83 electronic-pagination systems workers 18 83 occupational therapy ass/aides 16 82 physical therapists 102 80 residential counselors 165 76 human services workers 168 75 Greatest Growth 1994 Change cashiers* 3005 562 janitors and cleaners, maids* 3043 559 salespersons, retail* 3842 532 waiters and waitresses* 1847 479 registered nurses* 1906 473 general managers and top executives* 3046 466 systemws analysts* 483 445 home health aides 420 428 guards* 867 415 nursing aides, orderlines and attendant 1265 387 Note: projections reflect moderate growth scenario Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Original cited by: American Demographics March 1996 This is contrary to those who claim that immigrant do not match our new labor needs - most jobs tend to be very skilled or very unskilled, both happen to fit with immigration trends quite nicely. 1973 PREDICTION OF 27 MILLION NEW JOBS FALLS *SHORT*! Scientific American ITT advertisement, April 1973 "By the time this child is grown, our nation's work force should total 106 million persons. A net increase of 27 million jobs by 1990. How will they be created? Comment - Nearly that many jobs were created in the TEN years of the 1980s, rather than in the 20 years projected by this advertisement. TWO JOBS CREATED FOR EVERY IMMIGRANT Two jobs created for every immigrant 1983-1993 \doc\96\01\ins80s.wk1 1992 INS Yearbook p. 25 US Immigration 1983-92 8,948,475 immigrants of all ages compared to 19.7 million more jobs from 1983-1993 Business Week Oct 9, 1995 p. 30. >>\doc\96\01\whitcoll.txt F011796 The Economist 1/6/96 p. 22 "White collar, blue collar" 24% of layoffs vs. 13% earlier affect managers and professionals, but since 93, unemployment has actually fallen for both groups. Norm Matloff mentions a friend who was laid off from Everex (Chinese) and was rehired by a Taiwan immigrant, yet claims immigrants do not create jobs. "Scott McNealy's Rising Sun" Business Week 1/22/96 p. 66 Sun was cofounded by immigrant Stanford classmate Vinod Khosla (who later left), and Andreas Bechtolsheim. >>\doc\96\01\outone.txt "Out One Door And In Another" Business Week Jan 22, 1996 p. 41 f011596. Overall employment is up despite massive layoffs. \doc\95\14\techshor.txt "Survey Uncovers Technical Shortages" Oct 16, 1996 Electrical Engineering Times. Very few layoffs in electronics, mostly in aerospace and communications and finance, not computer firms where debate over skilled immigration is hot. \priv\95\16\unemply.txt - Unemployment in 11/95 is 5.5%, full employment while immigration is at all-time high. Arthur Hu 11/7/95 OK, I missed something. If we're at a 5% unemployment, which is full employment for all practical intents and purposes, how can this be if immigration is at an all time high, if every immigrant equal 1 or >0 unemployed Americans? How could the 80's result in the creation of 20 million jobs if there were 7 million immigrants? Doesn't this show that high rates of immigration are associated with growing economies and low rates of unemployment? \priv\95\19\busimm.txt CANBERRA, Dec 11 (Reuter) - Business migrants to Australia in 1995/96 are expected to add A$1 billion to the economy and create 7,200 jobs, Immigration Minister Nick Bolkus said. \priv\95\18\empup.txt - AP Dec 4, 1995 The survey by Michigan State University projects a 4.7 percent increase in the number of new college graduates who can expect to get jobs, the third straight annual improvement. [[higher unemployment >>\priv\96\01\immjob.txt '95 Canada study blames immigration, family based immigration for high unemployment \CLIP\97\05\FRANCLAW.TXT AP 25-Feb-1997 20:25 EST REF6002 Copyright 1997. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. France Debates Immigration Law By PAUL-HENRI DU LIMBERT Associated Press Writer " the right-wing National Front, which has won four local elections by blaming France's 12.7 percent unemployment and other social ills on immigrants. " [[rate >>\priv\96\01\workfill.txt SJM 1/10/96 Chip boom killing supply Semiconductor industry scrambles to find enough workers to fill demand >>\priv\96\01\teenfear.htm - SJM 1/12/96 -- Almost 1 in 3 students worried about being victims of drive-by shootings. More than 2 in 5 black and Hispanic students expressed that fear. >>\priv\96\01\starsear.doc p. 6 "Star Search" THE NEW REPUBLIC JANUARY 22, 1996. Why work so hard to keep out talented and productive people with restrictions on immigrant engineers? >>\doc\96\01\outone.txt "Out One Door And In Another" Business Week Jan 22, 1996 p. 41 f011596. Overall employment is up despite massive layoffs. >>\doc\96\01\whitcoll.txt F011796 The Economist 1/6/96 p. 22 "White collar, blue collar" 24% of layoffs vs. 13% earlier affect managers and professionals, but since 93, unemployment has actually fallen for both groups. >>\doc\96\01\marxdumm.txt "Coming this year: Marx for Dummies" Wall Street Jounal Jan 25, 1996 ed. Karl Zinsmeister, fellow at Amerian Enterprise Institute f012596 Boomer income is 55% higher than 30 years ago. Average home is twice as big. 79-94 men's wages up 14%, not down 14%. Average family is 12% smaller in 93 than in 70. >>\doc\96\01\econmigr.txt "The economics of immigration" San Francisco Examiner June 13, 1993. Black janitors are down due to immigration, but blacks increase in almost every desirable field, so this is not neccesarily bad. A frequently cited study shows that the number of unionized black janitors in Los Angeles skyscrapers fell from 2,500 in 1977 to 600 in 1985 while total janitorial employment rose 50% (but blacks gained in almost every desirable field of employment during that period! number of black owned businesses up by 46% 87-92, black college grads up from 9% in 1980 to 14% in 1990, engineering enrollment up 43% in 4 years since 1986-87) \doc\95\08\jobprog.txt Job Progress - USA Today May 15, 1995 p. 2B Black: 650% Airplane pilots / navigators 311% Dentists 188% Radio, TV Applicance sales 173% Civil Engineers 155% Authors >>\priv\96\02\compjob.doc Seattle Times Jan 21, 1996 p. J1 "Quick learning vital in high-tech industry" "Indeed, high-tech employment represents such a moving target that the biggest problem they face today is the need to pay consultants more than they want because they can't find people who can do the jobs they need, Ashley said" "Industry offers wide range of career options, annual income" Summary: Most computer jobs are projected to increase by 50% over the next 5 years, the best jobs generally require 4 year college degrees or more. \doc\96\01\eeunem.txt According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, computer scientists have an unemployment rate of only 1.4% (ie. 2Q95 Source: US Dept of Labor). By any economic measure, the computer programming field is at full employment (ie. there are always some people temporarily unemployed). The unemployment rate for electrical engineers is only slightly higher at only 1.7% (ie. 2Q95 Source: US Dept of Labor). ------------ Computer Programmers 95Q1 931K-Employed 15K-Unemployed 1.6%-Unemployed 95Q2 924K-Employed 13K-Unemployed 1.4%-Unemployed ------------ Electrical Engineers 95Q1 572K-Employed 17K-Unemployed 2.9%-Unemployed 95Q2 625K-Employed 11K-Unemployed 1.7%-Unemployed ------------ Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor \priv\96\01\unemploy.txt - EE Times articles show EE unemployment went down from 6% in 1994/5 to under 2.5% in 1995/6 [[retrain \clip\96\01\retrain.txt Utah has a program to retrain laid off high tech workers. Stopping immigration of those with marketable skills does noting to upgrade the skills of the unemployed. [[take jobs \priv\96\02\reblacke.txt - points out data shows that blacks lost jobs in LA, job gains went to Asians and Hispanics. \priv\96\01\immjob.txt '95 Canada study blames immigration, family based immigration for high unemployment >>\doc\95\14\austimmg.txt - Austrians want zero immigration, despite the lowest unemployment rate in Europe. Also cites Economist article showing unemployment down since mid 70s despite immigration. \priv\95\17\matloff.txt Labor Secretary Robert B. Reich said of the 5.5 He was interviewed on a local radio station today. When asked if immigration had a negative impact on employment and wages for natives, he said, "Only at the low-skilled level, and only in some cities." @@unions \priv\95\14\unionimm.txt wojtek sokolowski notes that some unions are supportive of immigrants, if not immigration in general @@Unskilled Many argue that it's unskilled / uneducated immigrants we need less of, not all immigrants that are harmful. EVEN UNSKILLED USED BY HIGH TECH AS JANITORS AND ASSEMBLERS \clip\98\08\unskill.txt Jobs Exist for Immigrants, Study Finds Labor: Report says unskilled new arrivals are 'structurally embedded' in the economy, including growing high-tech sector. Los Angeles Times, Monday, May 4, 1998 By PATRICK J. MCDONNELL, Times Staff Writer Contradicting widespread fears that an increasingly high-tech economy is squeezing out low-skilled immigrants, a new study has concluded that even computer-products manufacturers and other information-age businesses will continue to need new arrivals with little education and skill. UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS ARE NOT NEEDED \clip\98\07\skillim.txt 'NEW ECONOMY' 1, IMMIGRANTS 0 Policy On Unskilled Entrants Flawed, Studies Say Investors Business Daily, April 7, 1998 David A. Price "Reasonable Immigration" Wall Street Journal April 23, 1996 p. A15 Rep Lamar Smith (R Texas) says half of all immigrants have no skills and little education and compete directly with American citizens for increasingly scare unskilled jobs @@visa breakdown \priv\96\04\immvisa.txt Monday, March 11, 1996, Page A1 (c)1996 San Francisco Chronicle Few Visas Go to `Best, Brightest' INS figures debunk businesses' claims 123,000 total employment based visas 22,000 Chinese not returning to Tianamen 100,000 left 60,000 spouses and children of workers 40,000 workers 21,053 1st preference 13,000 spouses and children 1,300 aliens of extraordinary ability 1,809 outstanding professors and researchers 5,000 multinational executives 2nd preference "exceptional workers" "prof adv degree" 58,000 1992 29,000 1993 14,000 1994 -> 60% of all emplyment visas 3rd preference "skilled worker" 2 yrs training or experience @@voting rights zip31\clip\99\07\immnew01.txt Alien ballot A novel idea in Cambridge: Give noncitizen immigrants the vote Cityscape by Sarah McNaught The Boston Phoenix, February 18 - 25, 1999 \priv\96\13\citzvote.txt San Francisco Examiner, Tuesday, April 30, 1996 Noncitizen voting measure dealt blow Judge says S.F. plan unconstitutional, halts petition drive \priv\96\12\ncitvote.txt San Francisco Examiner, Tuesday, April 23, 1996 Diana Walsh "Ballot plan would let noncitizens vote in S.F." But if proposal gets enough signatures, secretary of State promises to fight it as unconstitutional pollster David Binder had found city voters split on her proposal, with 45 percent favoring extending voting rights and 44 percent opposing it. some cities outside California had extended voting rights to noncitizens. Takoma Park, Md., in 1992 gave noncitizens the right to vote in municipal elections, and noncitizens are allowed to vote in New York City school board elections. d:\doc\96\01\wagehi.txt - Average wages for engineers have kept up or beat the CPI http://www.arthurhu.com/index/immig.htm#wageshigher @@wages, higher Immigrants are said to lower wages, but it is usually "it stands to reason" or experts say that they "may", but what is the evidence?? Almost every survey shows that doctors and engineers, which have the highest percentages of immigrants, have the highest wages and lowest rates of unemployment, and regions with high percentages of immigrants such as Silicon Valley also have the highest pay levels. ------------------------------------------------------------ \clip\99\02\silvall.txt San Jose Mercury News January 9, 1999 Internet, software redefining Silicon Valley BY JONATHAN RABINOVITZ Mercury News Staff Writer "software increased its total share of jobs to 14 percent from 7.5 percent. And software employees continue to be the most highly paid, with average annual wages of $90,380." EE TIMES 1998, IMMIGRANTS HI AGAIN \doc\web\98\06\salary.txt EE Times Salary Survey of Electrial Engineering Times readers Aug 31, 1998 Country of Origin ----------------- Iran 86.4 Canada 80.9 India 74.8 Taiwan 73.9 US 71.7 China 70.1 IMMIGRANT WAGES RISE 50% HIGHER THAN FOR NATIVES IN 1988 "Measuring Immigrant Wage Growth Using Matched CPS Files Harriet Orcutt Duleep and Mark C. Regets Using matched Current Population Survey data, we find that in 1988, the median wage growth of immigrants was 6.7% compared to 4.4% for workers born in the US Program for Research on Immigratin Policy The Urban Institute Washington DC April 1996 PRIP-UI-42 IMMIGRANTS START OUT MAKING LESS, BUT EARNINGS GROW FASTER The Elusive Concept of Immigrant Quality Harriet Orcutt Duleep Mark C. Regets. The Urban Institute Washington DC, April 1996 PRIP-UI-41. The find that although measured by starting earnings, "quality" of newer immigrants as declined, their earnings growth has in inverse relationship, so that their earnings will catch up as fast as earlier immigrants. IMMIGRATION RAISES PAY FOR MOST AMERICANS clip\97\15\immpoll.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/immi_061697.html The Seattle Times Company Monday, June 16, 1997 Negative views on immigration have eased in the U.S., poll says "But the council also found that immigrants have boosted wages for the overwhelming majority of Americans, including blacks with a high-school education or more. [which is true of most blacks]" ENGINEERS, TECHNICAL FIELDS PAY THE MOST FOR BS DEGREE Starting Salaries and Increases from 1996 for various majors: Chemical Engineering $42,758 4.3% Mechanical Engineering $39,852 4.5% Electrical Engineering $39,811 4.0% Computer Science $36,964 4.5% Nursing $32,927 4.0% Civil Engineering $32,170 4.0% Chemistry $31,261 4.0% Accounting $30,393 4.0% Education $25,742 4.0% Journalism $22,102 4.0% Source: Michigan State University Collegiate Employment Research Institute From: Dave Chiang <73052.1235@compuserve.com> ------------------------------------------------------- MOST STUDIES CONTRADICT MATLOFF'S CLAIM OF LOWER IMMIGRANT SALARIES \clip\97\12\paycheck.txt http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970428S0110 F051897 Electrical Engineering Times April 28, 1997, Issue: 951 Paychecks don't measure up By Bob Bellinger Davis, Calif. - One point made in professor Matloff's paper is that immigrants take lower salaries than Americans. ------------------------------------------------------- COMPUTER SERVICES HAS HIGHEST SALARY INCREASE Top salary increases for 1997 1. Computer services and software 4.8% 2. Telecommunications 4.5% 3. Entertainment 4.5% 4. Finance and Banking 4.2% 5. Retailing 3.8% Source: Business Week (cited in Seattle Times April 6, 1997) ------------------------------------------------------------------ MICROSOFT HOME STATE HAS HIGHEST HIGH TECH WAGE $58K, 30% JOB GROWTH http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/tech_031997.html \clip\97\08\hiwage.txt The Seattle Times Wednesday, March 19, 1997 High-tech pay here is the highest in the nation by Thomas W. Haines Seattle Times business reporter "First, that paycheck: $57,555 annually on average. It's no surprise that number is high, largely because of this state's concentration of software jobs, which typically pay more than computer-hardware manufacturing jobs. Washington's average tops No. 2 New Jersey at $55,970, and No. 3 California at $55,160. " 4. Massachusetts 52,999 5. Idaho 51,879 6. Connecticut 51,782 7. New York 51,766 8. Alaska 49,725 9. Wash. DC 49,668 10. Maryland 49,573 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics "Washington also ranks high in growth of its high-tech jobs between 1990 and 1995, according to the study. The state added 18,516 jobs for a total of 78,920, a 30 percent increase." "California maintains job lead" EE Times Feb 17, 1997 p. 71 F021997-2 ------------------------------------------------ ENGINEERING AND MATH PAY THE HIGHEST BS SALARIES source: USA Today Jan 15, 1997 p. 1 Bachelor's degree pay for men: Median US income for men 30 and over with bachelor's degrees: Engineering 52,998 Math 52,316 Physics 51,819 Pharmacy 50,805 Economics 50,360 All 43,586 Excludes self-employed, data through 1993 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Quarterly Summer 1996 ------------------------------------------------------------------ Seattle Times Feb 16, 1997 p. E1 "A Quick Look at Wages" Even as jobs expanded, workers wages have risen. Salaries for mid to upper level managers have risen 30-40% in only 3 years. (in software) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- SOFTWARE WAGES RISE THE FASTEST, NOT DRAGGED DOWN BY IMMIGRANTS. \doc\97\02\hiwage.txt 1997 Salary Increase Projections 4.8% Computer Services and Software 4.5% Telecommuniations 4.5% Entertainment 4.2% Finance and Banking 3.8% Retail 3.7% Education 3.6% Transportation Salaried Workers, excluding executive, Bureau of Labor Statistics Business Week Feb 17, 1997 p. 33 -------------------------------------------------------------- \doc\web\97\02\washjob.txt IMMIGRANT ENGINEERS DON'T CREATE JOBS? MICROSOFT IMMIGRANTS CREATE 3.4 JOBS EACH VS. 2.8 AT BOEING, OR EVEN 5 JOBS Summary: "Software Industry in 1997: Mostly Small Companies" Washinton CEO January 1997 p. 32 Software is the #2 industry in WA state, companies are growing at 25% a year, wages are at $59,000 ------------------------------------------ another report - $59,000 average salary, $700 in free soda and subsidized food. \doc\95\11\micrwage.txt King County and Washington Employment and Security Department (Seattle PI Aug 2, 1995) Average wages, including stock options software $80,508 aerospace $49,155 King Co. $30,716 ----------------------------------------- RAND: ASIANS START LOW AND CATCH UP, EUROPEANS ENTER EQUAL, HISPANICS DON'T CATCH UP http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/ordi/getab.pl?14020439-14022917 \clip\97\04\immprog.txt (just the study abstract is here) DOCNO: MR-763-IF/FF Japanese, Korean, and Chinese immigrants enter with wages much lower than native-born workers', their wages increase rapidly, reaching parity within 10 to 15 years. Europeans enter with wages similar to natives' and continue to earn comparable wages. In contrast, Mexican immigrants enter with very low wages and experience a persistent wage gap. TITLE: The Mixed Economic Progress of Immigrants. \clip\97\03\engsalr.txt Source Services Salary Survey Salary Surveys $50,000 Software Design and Development $49,900 Digital Analog Design Engineer $49,000 Semiconductor Design Engineer $41,800 Junior Software Engineer (These guys are underpaid??) -------------------------------------- \CLIP\97\02\bestjob.txt pathfinder / Money magazine The Best jobs in 4 Categories Comment 2 of the top 3 paying job categories are Physician and Computer engineer, both fields with high percentage of immigrants. Tell me how immigrants are lowering wages and scaring away entry of blacks. Top Paying Jobs 1.Physician/surgeon ($156,000/$200,000) 2.Airline pilot ($95,794) 3.Computer Engineer ($70,000) 4.Management Consultant ($60,000) 5.Lawyer ($58,000) "Bachelor's degree pay for men" USA Today Jan 15, 1997 p. 1 COMPANIES MOVING AWAY FROM CA AND NY TO LOWER WAGE STATES "When Companies Pull Up Stakes" Business Week Jan 13, 1997 p. 30 Georgia, Texas, Tennesee, Colorado register the biggest job gains, while New York, California and Wash DC have lost the most jobs from business relocation. Note that although New York and California are losing jobs with lots of immigrants, it is because wages are TOO HIGH, not because immigrants are lowering wages for natives. See engineering salaries COMPUTERS AND ENGINEERING PAY MOST (AND HAVE MOST IMMIGRANTS) \doc\96\07\jobpay.txt College Majors That Really Pay Business Week Dec 2, 1996 p. 34. Engineering and computer science, with the highest percentage of immigrants have the highest starting salaries. CS SALARIES RISE 5-6%, ONLY 1/2 AS MANY CS GRADS AS 1986 \clip\96\10\csgrad.txt "Demand for CS Grads Soars" Electrical Engineering Times Dec 2, 1996 p. 102. Starting CS salaries have increased 5-6% over the past 3 years, outpacing inflation, and college are producing only slightly more than half as many CS grads as the peak 10 years ago. Contrary to claims by Norman Matloff that MS degrees have no value, EE Times surveys shows masters paid $4400-$4700 (7%) more per year Starting Salary Offers Year Start Increase 1994 $31,783 1995 $33,712 6.1% 1996 $35,222 4.5% 1997 $36,902 4.8% (projected) Source: NACE \clip\96\02\valyinco.txt 4 Aug 1996 San Jose Mercury News Valley defies growing income gap -- Census figures: Rich getting richer, but Santa Clara County's poor also prosper. By Scott Thurm. The Mercury News analysis of census surveys from 1976 to 1994 found that household incomes in Santa Clara County have increased at every socioeconomic level, after adjusting for inflation and the number of people who live in the household. Household incomes at each level studied increased between 12 and 25 percent. "A National Case of the Jitters" Wall Street Journal June 4, 1996 "A study of National Science Foundation data found immigrants in the high-tech arena are likely pushing _up_ salaries. An Urban Institute study found immigrants didn't hurt local workers." \doc\96\04\jitters.txt \doc\96\03\usbetter.txt "Group Says U.S. Workers Are Better Off Than Thought" New York Times April 19, 1996 p. C1 The National Association of Manufacturers says that when problems with government reporting of inflation are corrected for, wages have not stagnated, but risen 15% since 1979. The economy has created 8.4 million jobs since 1992. The real problem is that a typical family paid only 20% of wages for state and federal taxes in 1955 compared to 37% today. \doc\96\02\wageup.txt Wages of high school dropouts are said to be lowered by 4%, and college-high school gap increased by 25% due to immigration, but wages of college-educated men were up 8% and women by 17%, also attributed to immigration in study by David Jaeger of Bureau of Labor Statistics. Only 10% of native born are high school dropouts, so drop out wages are a non-issue for natives. >>\doc\96\01\greatexp.txt Great Expectations Newsweek January 8, 1996 p. 24 Robert Samuelson. Incomes are actually up 10-20% over the past two decades, not stagnant, when inflation is propertly corrected for. >>d:\priv\96\01\econtren.doc Business Week Oct 9, 1995 p. 30 Economic Trends BY GENE KORETZ CPI overstates inflation, most jobs are created at high and low skill levels. Thus wages are not stagnant. \doc\96\01\marxdumm.txt "Coming this year: Marx for Dummies" Wall Street Jounal Jan 25, 1996 ed. Karl Zinsmeister, fellow at Amerian Enterprise Institute f012596 Boomer income is 55% higher than 30 years ago. Average home is twice as big. 79-94 men's wages up 14%, not down 14%. Average family is 12% smaller in 93 than in 70. @@wages, lower \clip\99\15\immwage.txt L.A. County Jobs Surge Since '93, but Not Wages + Economy: Recovery has created 300,000 positions, but almost none are in middle-class range of $40,000 to $60,000. By DON LEE, Times Staff Writer Los Angeles Times, Monday, July 26, 1999 Since the depths of the last recession, in the winter of 1993, more than 300,000 new jobs have been created in Los Angeles County. But a majority of these jobs pay substantially below-average wages--less than $25,000 a year--and barely one in 10 averages $60,000 or more, a Times analysis shows. \clip\98\02\immwage.txt Immigrant Competition Reduces Wages The Associated Press, Wednesday, January 21, 1998 By Michelle Mittelstadt Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- Immigrant labor has depressed the wages of Americans in lower-skilled jobs by as much as 12 percent, according to a study by a think tank that wants stricter controls on immigration. A 1 percent immigrant increase in the composition of lower-skilled occupations reduces wages for the native-born by 0.8 percent, said study author Steven Camarota. Since that work force is 15 percent immigrant, the study concludes wages for U.S.-born workers may be depressed by an average 12 percent. (wait, you can't extrapolate that!) CIS summary 10% INCREASE IN IMMIGRATION LOWERS WAGES BY 1% (?) MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 12 December, 1997 \clip\97\28\mignews.txt The Jerome Levy Economics Institute in August 1997 released a report on immigrants in the US labor market The consensus among economists is that an increase in immigration of 10 percent reduces overall US wages by one percent and more than one percent in low-skill labor markets. For example, between 1980 and 1988, immigration increased the number of high school dropouts in the work force by roughly 25 percent and the wages of high school dropouts declined by 10 percent. MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 12 December, 1997 \clip\97\28\mignews.txt Inequality. The Brookings Papers on Economic Activity includes papers from a March 1997 conference on "How Much Do Immigration and Trade Affect Labor Market Outcomes?" by George Borjas, Richard Freeman and Lawrence Katz. Since 1970, the US has had both increased immigration and imports Using an aggregate US production function, the authors conclude that immigration accounted for 44 percent of the decline in the relative earnings of US born high school dropouts from 1980 to 1995. Imports of labor-intensive goods, by contrast, account for about 27 percent of the decline in the relative earnings of US-born high school dropouts from 1980 to 1995. A new book, "Trade and Income Distribution" by William R. Cline, estimates that trade and migration account for about 10 percent of the increase in wage inequality observed in the US. \CLIP\97\02\whoblame.txt TIME Magazine November 6, 1995 Volume 146, No. 19 WHO'S REALLY TO BLAME? Job-Stealing Aliens And Job-Exporting Ceos Are Easy Targets, But Growing Income Inequality Has Deeper Roots \doc\96\06\matlof11.txt 9/12/96 matloff@cs.ucdavis.edu (Norm Matloff) Remember, studies show that each 10% increase in immigrant population results in a 10% decrease in wages of the earlier-arriving immigrants. There have been a couple of studies showing numbers like this. One had 10/10, another 10/9. If you need references, they are in the Urban Institutes pro-immigration polemic, "Setting the Record Straight." Arthur Hu: If this is true, why is it that Asian wages increased when the population doubled from 1980 to 1990 mostly due to immigration instead of falling to 0% as the formula predicts? c:\clip\96\01\mignews.txt Migration News August 1996 Williams concluded that, between 1870 and 1910, immigration reduced the real wages of unskilled US workers by 10 percent. According to Borjas, 20 to 30 percent of the drop in the real wages of unskilled workers is due to immigration. David Jaeger of the Bureau of Labor Statistics concludes that immigration is responsible for as much as half of the real wage decline of high school dropouts in the US labor force. [comment - but Jaeger's study also concluded immigrants RAISED the wages of college educated workers] \priv\96\13\borjas.doc Painful Wall Street Journal April 26, 1996 p. 1 Figures Despite His Heritage, Prominent Economist Backs Immigration Cut Born in Cuba, George Borjas Says His Census Research, Not His Past, Guides ideas: Why Congress Is Listening By BOB DAVIS Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET Journal he calculates that native workers lose $133 billion a year in lower salaries because of immigrant competition; employers pocket the money, and then some, as reduced expenses. Unskilled natives suffer the most. The salaries for engineers have been increasing. For 10 years of experience, the median engineering salary has risen from $42.6K in 1986 to $52.9K in 1995. (=.80 vs. .73 in CPI) (Engineering Workforce Commission). CPI is from 1996 Universal Almanac, US Bureau of Economic Analysis. CPI index 1986=1.00 est 1986 = .897 1.000 est 1995 = .658 0.734 = 1.36 increase in inflation vs 1.24 increase in salary = 10% loss, but probably ahead once inflation is properly computed. \priv\96\02\deprwage.txt Fair claims Labor Department study shows immigration explains half of decline in real wages of high school dropouts, 21% of increase in the spread between high school and college wage differential. \priv\96\01\worktake.txt US News and World Report 1/16/96 Cover Story Median household income has been flat for 20 years, and workers' real weekly wages have dropped $23 or almost 5 percent since 1979. Those at the top and those with marketable skills are moving up, but the great majority of workers find themselves stuck or falling. \priv\95\19\immwage.txt the only study that ever broke out immigrants by admission category found that it was employment-based immigrants that have a significantly negative impact on native wages. (For any new people, I refer to a 1992 study by the Urban Institute by Elaine Sorensen, et. al. titled Immigrant Categories and the U.S. Job Market: Do they make a difference.) @@welfare A major issue brought up by Norman Matloff and others is eligibility of the elderly, even if sponsored, for SSI programs when the intent of legisation is to disallow those likely to "become a public charge". Interestingly, if Social Security is viewed as welfare (which it is based on how it is funded), Asians and Hispanics collect less overall than Whites because they have more workers and fewer retirees in the population. Index Native Imm 1990 Noncitizen cash 7.4%/1.00 9.1%/1.23 1990 Noncitizen +noncash 14% /1.00 21%/1.50 Ranked by Asian CA Citizen W1.00 B-3.72 H-1.03 A 1.61 * CA Noncitizen W1.00 B-3.72 H-2.07 A-1.93 * Welfare mother W1.00 B-3.57 H-2.86 A --- I1.28 %%Ethnic Group F081897 "Older Immigrant Groups More Likely to Receive Welfare" Asian Week Aug 8, 1997 p. 8 David Hayes- Bautista head of the Center for Study of Latino Health at UCLA found 6% of poor Mexicans and 4% of El Salvadorians get SSI, compared to 46% of Filipinos and 44% of poor Cubans. National rate is 13% [no mention of Chinese?] Many of Mexicans and El Salvadoreans are illegals not eligible. In 1996, Cuban, German, Chinese, Korean and Indian immigrants received AFC at rates below the 10% rate for all the US poor. Highest AFDC use was Rates among poor immigrants --------------------------- 29% Dominican Republic 25% Vietnam 24% Jamaica 16% Philippines 10% Mexican and Central American, US average \clip\97\19\hispwelf.txt Immigrant Welfare Use Varies Widely Benefits: Citing many factors, UCLA report finds Filipinos, Cubans, Vietnamese more likely to get aid than Mexicans, Central Americans Los Angeles Times, Wednesday, July 30, 1997 PATRICK J. McDONNELL, TIMES STAFF WRITER Poor immigrants vary widely in their use of public benefits, with low-income Filipinos, Vietnamese and Cubans being relatively high users while Mexicans and Central Americans are less likely to be on welfare, according to a UCLA study released Tuesday. ... low-income Mexican and Central American immigrants are generally less likely than the poor U.S. population as a whole to receive major public benefits. %%Food Stamps \clip\97\18\foodstam.txt Albany Chiefs Near Pact on Food Aid for Immigrants The New York Times, July 24, 1997 By RICHARD PEREZ-PENA ALBANY, N.Y. -- New York state is likely to insure that as many as 100,000 immigrants continue to receive food stamps, even after the federal government stops paying for them next month, Gov. George Pataki and legislative leaders said Wednesday. %%Hmong "Hmong Desperate on Welfare Reform" Asian Week Dec 4, 1997 p. 13 Thanks to Norman Matloff's drive to remove all immigrants from welfare, there have been a few reports of elderly asians committing suicide to not be a burden on their relatives. The Hmong believe they should be covered as veterans because they fought for the benefit of the US and were told they would be taken care of. \images\972\1221\p04.tif %%Laws \clipim\98\01\immwel1.tif-immwel3.tif (images files) "Immigration and Public Assistance Access to Federal and State Benefits" Congressional Digest May 1996 p. 137. Discusses history and basis for laws - immigrants are admitted if they have sponsors, but pledges do not make such immigrants ineligible for SSI benefits. The law once permitted deportation if immigrants became a "public charge". %%Medicaid \doc\web\99\08\immread.txt Welfare reform expands citizenry Naturalization rise linked to benefits by Audrey Hudson The Washington Times, June 29, 1999, p. A1 In California, 23.7 percent of new immigrants received Medicaid, while only 8.2 percent of the native population claimed the benefits. "The reason is because immigrants are poor and we don't have an immigration policy that selects people on their ability to succeed in the U.S.," said Mark Krikorian, executive director of the study conducted by the Center for Immigration. %%Medicare "Medicare gets an umbrella for an avalance" Business Week June 2, 1997 p. 44 Chart shows that assuming current rates of health-care inflation, medicare expenses will have risen from under 2.5% in 1995 to 14% of GNP by the year 2030 according to Watson Wyatt and Co. when the baby boom retires. (Immigrants help ease the crisis because they have a low ratio of retirees to workers) %%SSI 8.3% NATURALIZED VS 2.4% OF US BORN GET SSI \doc\web\99\08\immread.txt U.S. General Accounting Office: - Welfare Reform: Public Assistance Benefits Provided to Recently Naturalized Citizens. HEHS-99-102. 15 pp. plus 3 appendices (12 pp.) June 23, 1999. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/he99102.pdf [but no comparison with social security payments to the native born!] RESULTS IN BRIEF: Our analysis shows that the recently naturalized citizens we identified generally used SSI, Medicaid, and TANF benefits at a higher rate in 1997 than the native-born population. Nationally, out of the 927,338 immigrants who were recently naturalized, we found that about 8.3 percent received SSI benefits during 1997. This rate is higher than the rate of 2.4 percent for the nation’s native-born citizens. Also, the rate of benefit receipt for recently naturalized citizens in the Medicaid and TANF programs was higher than the CPS-based estimate for the native-born population in several of the states we examined, although the magnitude of difference varied across some states. For example, we found that 9.6 percent of the recently naturalized citizens in Texas received Medicaid compared with 6.1 percent of the native-born population, while 23.7 percent of the recently naturalized citizens in California received such benefits compared with 8.2 percent of the native-born population. CONGRESS EXTENDS PROTECTION FROM TAKING SSI FROM ELDERLY POOR \clip\98\13\h1deal.txt House Changes Immigrant Benefit Law September 23, 1998 WASHINGTON (AP) -- Almost 20,000 mostly poor, elderly immigrants would keep their Supplemental Security Income benefits under legislation the House passed Wednesday. [H.R. 4558] \clip\97\19\hispwelf.txt Immigrant Welfare Use Varies Widely Benefits: Citing many factors, UCLA report finds Filipinos, Cubans, Vietnamese more likely to get aid than Mexicans, Central Americans Los Angeles Times, Wednesday, July 30, 1997 "SSI is a monthly federal cash benefit for aged, blind and disabled people unable to work." [usually ineligible for social security] Maximum SSI benefits are now $484 a month for an individual, and $726 a month for a couple. GOP Plan Would Drop Some Immigrants Associated Press, Tuesday, June 3, 1997 By LAURA MECKLER \clip\97\12\mignews.txt WEFLARE TO BE RESTORED TO DISABLED ELDERLY IMMIGRANTS, LOSING 40% OF PROJECTED SAVINGS Welfare: Immigrant Eligibility Restored Legislation. On May 2, 1997, Congress and President Clinton agreed in the balanced budget plan to continue Medicaid and Supplemental Security Income disability aid for about 266,000 disabled legal immigrants who were in the US before the welfare law was signed on August 22, 1996. The cost of restoring these benefits is estimated at $10 billion over five years. In addition, legal immigrants not now receiving Medicaid and SSI would be allowed to qualify for benefits if they were in the US before August 22, 1996, and become disabled. MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 5 May, 1997 Jewish organizations oppose Matloff's "welfare reforms" \doc\97\03\jewwelf.txt Subject: COMPASSION AND JUSTICE FOR LEGAL IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES from: David Luberoff@KSG on 04/11/97 01:46 PM The Union of Councils for Soviet Jews (UCSJ) and the American Association of Jews from the Former Soviet Union (AAJFSU) are sponsoring a rally and petition drive for "Compassion and Justice for Legal Immigrants and Refugees." MATLOFF INSPIRED LAW SET TO INCREASE POVERTY IN MICROSOFT LAND AMONG EAST EUROPEANS AND JEWISH IMMIGRANTS. http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/vese_040797.html \clip\97\09\eastpov.txt Seattle Times Company Monday, April 7, 1997 James Vesely: Eastside poverty, no joke and nowhere to run by James Vesely Seattle Times editorial columnist "Who are they? Marchione said many are recent Eastern European immigrants, among the group targeted for welfare cuts by Congress. Legal or not, the immigrant population is about to feel the weight of federal and state reckoning" REFUGEES FROM USSR, VIETNAM ETC. UNTOUCHED BY SSI / WELFARE REFORM \clip\97\10\refssi.txt Chronicles, April 1997 by Don Barnett What Welfare Reform? ILLEGALS, NOTHING, SPONSORED WILL HAVE TO RELY ON SPONSORS, REFUGEES NEED TO BECOME CITIZENS AFTER 5 YEARS. http://www.tribnet.com/~tnt/news/06432.htm \clip\97\04\immig.htm Date, circumstances of arrival determine aid to immigrants Joseph Turner; The News Tribune (Tacoma WA) Illegals get nothing, Sponsored legal immigrants will be required to be supported by their sponsors until they work for 10 years. Refugees will get aid for 5 years, but must become citizens to collect after that. ------------------------------------------------------------- \clip\97\04\disacut.txt In 1994 one in 4 elderly noncitizens 25 elderly citizens collects SSI "It shows how the immigrants are really coming here and using the U.S. as a retirement program," said Rep. Clay Shaw, R-Fla., chairman of the House Ways and Means human resources subcommittee. [But how can that be if less than 50% are collecting? They must be coming for other reasons] AP 15-Feb-1997 14:40 EST REF5376 Copyright 1997. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. Govn't Cuts off Disabled Immigrants By MICHELLE MITTELSTADT Associated Press Writer --------------------------------------------------------------------- \clip\97\04\ssicut.txt WELFARE CUTS NOT NEW TO COUNTY Immigrants: Santa Clara board's '93 reforms may show Congress the way. San Jose Mercury News, February 10, 1997 By Ken McLaughlin Mercury News Staff Writer (Santa Clara already kicked off elderly SSI after reports of abuse) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- \clip\97\04\borjas.txt KNOW THE FLOW National Review April 17, 1995 Immigrants supposedly use more welfare, but do not earn more than their population. only about 2 to 4 per cent of the households originating in South Africa, Taiwan, or the United Kingdom received public assistance, as opposed to 11 to 12 per cent of the households originating in Ecuador or Mexico and nearly 50 per cent of the households originating in Laos or Cambodia. \clip\97\03\ssicut.txt AP 6-Feb-1997 6:44 EST REF5139 Immigrants May Lose Monthly Aid. One million legal immigrants will be cut off from SSI. Three-quarters of those affected are concentrated in just four states: 391,620 in California; 154,257 in New York; 102,741 in Florida; and 84,597 in Texas. They will lose an average of $410 a month -------------------------------------------------- ASIANS AND HISPANICS PAY SOCIAL SECURITY TO DISPROPORTIONATELY WHITE SENIORS - Table Social Security and Public Assistance Race Payments Index ss per Total / household pop Index NHWhite $2,486 1.00 NHWhite $890 1.00 White $2,452 -1.00 White $857 -1.04 total $2,353 -1.04 total $757 -1.18 Black $2,037 -1.20 Black $435 -2.04 AmInd $1,899 -1.29 AmInd $351 -2.54 Hisp $1,550 -1.58 Hisp $243 -3.66 AsianPI $1,477 -1.66 AsianPI $224 -3.97 Asians and Hispanics have the lowest combined SS+PA payments, especially social security Ratio of working age to retiree age by race Worker / Retiree Index Hisp 22.00 2.97 AsianPI 20.09 2.71 AmInd 18.16 2.45 Black 11.57 1.56 total 8.41 1.14 White 7.64 1.03 NHWhite 7.40 1.00 Asians have 3 times as many workers per retiree as Whites yet they collect only half as much Since social security is essentially a welfare system funded by current workers, rather than insurance, whites are collecting far more in "welfare" overall than either the immigrant Asians and Hispanics, or even the African Americans. Asians are paying into Social Security which is disproportionately paid to whites, but now noncitizens are not eligible to get SSI, which is simply a means-tested program for people who never paid into Social Security, but most collect far more than they ever put into the system anyway. ------------------------------------------------- MODERATE IMMIGRATION KEY TO SOCIAL SECURITY http://www.businessweek.com/1997/06/b351395.htm \clip\97\03\socisecu.txt Business Week Feb 10, 1997 p. 92 COMMENTARY: SOCIAL SECURITY: IS THE SKY REALLY FALLING? chart: c:\clip\97\03\toopess.gif - The census projects a higher birthrate becuase of immigrants with higher birthrates than trustees who see the population as falling - if labor is short, more immigrants would be let in - Immigrants through adding more workers and more births are key to a scenario in which social security runs a surplus. NORM MATLOFF'S WEFLARE REFORMS HITS RUSSIAN JEWISH ELDERLY AND THE CHINESE, MANY CANNOT NATURALIZE http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/imig_012797.html \clip\97\02\citzhope.txt Seattle Times Jan. 27, 1997 For sick, old, citizenship is last hope Law about to cast legal immigrants adrift SOCIAL SECURITY ENSLAVES HISPANICS TO PAY FOR OLD EUROMERICANS http://www.arthurhu.com/97/01/hispss.txt From: Raoul Lowery Contreras Subj: The future enslavement of my Hispanic cousins by an aging White America Will the booming Hispanic, mostly Mexican-origin, population of America be enslaved by Baby Boomer Social Security checks in coming years? Will the ultimate social sharing, guaranteed benefits to all, program keep the Hispanic population in poverty, in perpetuity? - see @@matloff for articles charging that Chinese lead list of immigrant groups with high rates of elderly "welfare" "Safety Net Pulled on Noncitizens" Asian Week Nov 8, 1996 p. 12 Bert Eljera F011497-2 500,000 noncitizens are expected to lose SSI. Chart of which countries and qualifying conditions. Elderly may be forced to move back to families that may not be able to support them. SSI/SSP Noncitizens by Country of Origin Mexico 22.5 Vietnam 8.6 Philippines 8.6 China 7.6 USSR 6.1 Laos 5.4 Iran 4.5 Cambodia 4.4 Korea 4.1 Other 19.2 Unknown 9.0 Source: Coalition for Immigrant Rights FOREIGN BORN NONCITIZENS USE MORE WELFARE, MAKE LESS comment - but this leaves out citizen immigrants, Asians have a high rate of eventual citizenship. \clip\96\09\mignews.txt MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 3, No. 12 December, 1996 http://migration.ucdavis.edu For the first time, the Census Bureau released poverty data on native- and foreign-born residents: 13 percent of the US- born residents were poor, compared with 28 percent of the foreign-born who were not naturalized US citizens. Native- born households had median incomes of $34,800, while households headed by foreign-born persons had median incomes of $28,400. Household A: received AFDC or SSI in 1990 b: noncash food stamp, medicaid, housing c: median income A: B: C: for born noncit 9.1% 21% $28,400 native born 7.4% 14% $34,800 \CLIP\96\04\NEWLAW.TXT AP 14-Sep-1996 21:02 EDT REF5616 Legal Immigrants Fear New Law MILWAUKEE (AP) -- As many as 4,600 immigrants in Wisconsin are expected to lose their Supplemental Security Income, the federal support provided to the poor, elderly and disabled, Legal immigrants can't get SSI or food stamps unless they become citizens, with some exceptions. States can deny federal block money for welfare, medicaid and social services. Future immigrants are barred from most assistance for 5 years. Sponsor's income will be counted in determining need, and must pay back any benefits used. States will determine if legal immigrants on SSI will lose medicaid. \clip\96\02\eldssi.doc Welfare bill will kick 3/4 of elderly poor Chinese out nursing homes. Thanks Norm. \doc\96\06\matlof10.txt Matloff says that seniors still don't deserve SSI after 5 years and naturalization, (even though many seniors won't or can't naturalize, or have other family support) My position has always been crystal-clear: Either make the sponsors pay for a reasonable period of time, say 10 years as in Canada and Australia (INCLUDING after the immigrant naturalizes) or reduce the number of seniors who are allowed to immigrate. clip\96\01\fixtest.txt http://www.urban.org/testimon/fixtest.htm The Use of SSI and Other Welfare Programs by Immigrants Testimony before the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Immigration February 6, 1996 Michael Fix, Jeffrey S. Passel, and Wendy Zimmermann The Urban Institute Washington, D.C. Only 10% of naturalized citizens live in poverty vs 29% of non-citizen immigrants. Elder immigrants are 28% of SSI recipients 65 older, but only 9% of the population, refugees are 13.1% welfare vs. 5.8% for all immigrants. Working age welfare is about the same, 5.1 vs. 5.3% Immigrants who are poor only use welfare at 16% vs 25% of poor natives. SSI use is only 3% of the foreign-born population vs. 2% of the native. SSI use is about the same for those around 20 years. 39% of those with no social security receive SSI. Chinese recipients, the subject unearthed by Norm Matloff are only 5% of beneficiaries nationwide. \clip\96\01\gaowelf.txt Immigrants and Welfare Use: Findings from the General Accounting Office http://www.fairus.org/issues/gaowelf.html \clip\96\01\mignews.txt August 1996 Migration News The US Dept of Labor surveyed the IRCA amnesty immigrants. Most were in low paying jobs, Legalized aliens were not eligible for most welfare programs for five years, or until 1993. However, when the survey was done in 1992, about 60 percent of the newly legalized sample families had assets of less than $1000, which would qualify them for many benefit programs. As the barriers to benefits fall, the survey found that many of the newly-legalized are beginning to apply for and receive benefits, although the proportion of the newly legalized receiving benefits is lower than for similarly poor US-born residents. About 40 percent of the legalized aliens reported that no one in their family had private health insurance. It found heavy usage of emergency, maternal and child health-care programs, and reported that 25 percent of the legalized families have a child in reduced-price school-lunch programs. \priv\96b\05\mignews.txt A new study by the Tomas Rivera Center found that, over the course of their lifetimes, immigrants contribute more in taxes to California than they cost in government services About nine percent of the foreign-born mothers aged 14 to 44 were on AFDC, compared to 11 percent of the native-born mothers in the same age group. \priv\96b\04\medical2.txt Los Angeles Times, June 24, 1996 830,000 May Lose Medi-Cal, Study Says. While 62% of citizens in California have insurance at their jobs, just 31% of Latinos and 40% of Asians do. Noncitizens now qualifying for Medi-Cal would become uninsured after the changes were implemented unless they met one of two criteria: They worked at least 20 hours a week and resided in the United States for 10 years, or had retired or left a job for health reasons. \priv\96b\04\medical.txt Return-Path: Date: Tue, 25 Jun 1996 01:41:52 -0400 As Many As 830,000 Immigrants May Lose Medi-Cal, Study Says. Medi-Cal program provides health coverage for roughly 6 million poor Californians, this would only affect legal immigrants, and back up the sponsor pledge that immigrants will not be a "public charge" with threat of deportation in first 5 to 7 years. The study estimates 44 percent of the state's 6.1 million non-citizens lack health insurance, as opposed to 18 percent of citizens in the state. N. Matloffclaims that 100% of elderly immigrant SSI is fradulent because the sponsors made a plege of lifetime support. \priv\96\17\immbeni.txt. Provisions on Legal Immigrants Jeopardize Bill on Illegal Aliens The New York Times, May 28, 1996 By Eric Schmitt - GAO says 25% of elderly SSI recipients were legal immigrants - Sponsor pledge of support is unenforceable in court. Bill would make the pledge binding, and use income of the sponsor to determine eligibility, currently limited to first 3 to 5 years in country - Dain Stain of FAIR ``It's very difficult to understand why poor immigrants who need all this training should be admitted at all.'' \priv\96\17\immssi2.txt The Associated Press, May 23, 1996 "Study: Immigrant Welfare Rising" By DIANE DUSTON. Summary: Supplemental Security Income program was established in 1972 for those who did not qualify for Social Security, survivors or disability programs. To be eligible, one must be 65 or over, blind or disabled. Immigrants who are legal can qualify, including sponsored immigrants, despite the sponsors pledge, which was ruled unenforceable. Maximum benefit is $470 a month individual, $705 per couple. 12% of 6.5 million cases and 14% of $25 billion in federal , $3 billion state benefits go to immigrants. 3% of noncitizens get SSI, 1.67 times the 1.8 percent rate of citizens. Noncitizens have shorter work histories (or may be paid cash only), and not qualify for social security. c:\doc\96\04\fastwelf.txt "Immigrants among fastest-growing welfare groups" Kiro NewsFax May 24, 1996. GAO found that immigrants are 33% of SSI (Supplemental Security Income) and 6% of disabled recipients, 2/3 of SSI immigrants are in California, New York, and Florida. Overall, noncitizens are more likely than citizens to apply, refugees rather than sponsored immigrants are most likely to be on program rolls. Elderly Asians on Welfare \priv\96\13\ELDWELF.HTM Elderly Non-Citizens on Welfare Cost Taxpayers $328 Billion -- Heritage ELDERLY NON-CITIZENS ON WELFARE WILL COST THE AMERICAN TAXPAYER $328 BILLION OVER THE NEXT DECADE. Robert Rector Senior Policy Analyst and William F.... http://www.pff.org/heritage/library/categories/healthwel/fyi54.html immigration.welfare "Illegal-immigration bill sails through the senate" Seattle Post-Intelligencer May 3, 1996 p. 1. 1994 census figures show citizens about the same as 5 percent of working age legal immigrants who are not refuees who receive public assistance, Illegal immigrants can only receive emergency Medicaid, school lunches, immunizations and short term disaster relief. >>\doc\96\03\caimwelf.wk1 Welfare rates ages 16-64 in California \doc\96\08\caimwelf.prn Index summary W1.00 B3.72 H1.03 A-1.61 citizen W1.00 B3.72 H2.07 A1.93 immigrant Welfare Rates for Californian Groups Workforce: 16 top 64 years old EarningsWelf Rate Group Worker 16-64 Index Hispanic citizens 20887 6.0% 2.07 Hispanic immigrants 13970 3.0% 1.03 Asian immigrants 19797 5.6% 1.93 Asian citizens 28904 1.8% -1.61 Whites 30333 2.9% 1.00 Blacks 22809 10.8% 3.72 CA state 26688 3.5% 1.21 - Asian citizens have the lowest rate of welfare, Blacks the highest - Asians immigrants high due to refugees Sources: 1980 US Census, Center for Immigration Studies Research by San Francisco Chronicle Staff writer Ramon G. McLeod Based on table published in San Francisco Chronicle June 23, 1993 p. A6 \priv\96\08\usnimm.txt Percentage of immigrants receiving welfare by nation of birth Nation Percent Cambodia 28 Laos 27 Soviet Union (former) 20 Vietnam 16 Cuba 10 Dominican Republic 9 China 6 Philippines 4 South Korea 4 Mexico 2 Figures are from 1990 for those arriving since 1980 Note how low rates are for China, Phillipines, South Korea and Mexico. Source: US News and World Report computer analysis of Census data "The myth of the parasites" US News and World Report Oct 3, 1994 "Reasonable Immigration" Wall Street Journal April 23, 1996 p. A15 Rep Lamar Smith (R Texas) says 21% of all immigrant households receive some public benefits \priv\96\02\immssi.txt - Asians are only 6.2% of SSI recipients. Matloff testifies that Taiwan Chinese are the highest rate Characteristics of Welfare Mothers \doc\95\07\cendata.txt Percentage of Mothers on Welfare White 7% Foreign Born 9% US Born 11% Hispanic 20% Black 25% Index W1.00 I1.28 H2,86 B3.57 3/4 of foreign born AFDC recipients are not citizens, but the foreign born have welfare rates almost as low as Whites. \priv\95\19\immgood.txt - New study says immigrants contribute more than they take San Jose Mercury News 12/11/95 (Los Angeles Times) The average immigrant family received $1,404 in welfare services in the first five years in this country. Native-born families on welfare averaged $2,279. (but the rate of welfare is higher) \doc\95\14\immwelf1.txt "Majority of APAs New Arrivals, Census Says" Asian Week Sept 1, 1995 p. 9 The Census Bureau study showed that immigrants who arrived in this country since 1990 are more likely to receive public assistance than people born here - 5.7 percent versus 2.9 percent. But this declines to only 1.4% for those who arrived before 1970 \priv\95\14\impol.txt matloff: MORE THAN HALF of elderly Chinese who immigrated to California during the 1980s were on welfare in 1990. \doc\95\11\suprparn.txt Over one quarter of elderly immigrants are on some kind of welfare, 3 times higher than native elderly citizens. @@White opposition YEH YEH LING AGAINST NONEURO IMMIG, CUPERTINO "OVERRUN" BY CHINESE \clip\99\12\euroam.txt The ethnic cleansing of European-Americans By Paul Craig Roberts Washington Times National Weekly Edition, Commentary, June 21-27, 1999 Recent immigrants who favor the melting The formerly all-white community of Cupertino, Calif., has been so overrun by Chinese immigrants that the school board debated a Mandarin-immersion kindergarten class. @@Work (entry level) HISPANICS MORE LIKELY TO WORK, HAVE FRIENDS WHO WORK, LIVE WITH RELATIVES WHO CAN WATCH KIDS, HAVE BANK ACCOUNTS, PERSONAL NETWORKS TO JOBS, TAKE ENTRY LEVEL LOW SKILL JOBS VS POOR BLACKS: "A Hidden Advantage for Some Job Seekers" Los Angeles Times, Friday, November 28, 1997 Social networks help immigrant Latinos get a foot in the employment door -- a little-noticed boon that low-income blacks don't share, social researchers say. By ABIGAIL GOLDMAN, Times Staff Writer @@world Immigration Spectrum --------------------- 33% NY City 1996 30% Frankfurt Germany SeaTimes 9/27/98 17% Canada 10% Israel workforce 9% Germany 7-8% USA 7% Washington State 5.7% France 5% Europe 3.8% Britain [[France \clip\96\02\franimm.txt Aug 9, 1996 PARIS, Aug. 8 (Reuter) - France's interior minister has said the government would yield only in a few exceptional cases to protests such as hunger strikes by African immigrants facing expulsion. France has about four million legal foreign residents and an estimated one million illegal immigrants. \priv\96b\07\francimm.txt France has four million legal foreign residents and an estimated one million illegal immigrants. [[Germany \clip\97\28\german.txt Like It or Not, Germany Becomes a Melting Pot The New York Times, November 30, 1997 By ALAN COWELL 9% of Germans are foreigners, the highest proportion in Europe, far ahead of the continental average of 5 percent and well above that of such countries as France (5.7 percent) and Britain (3.8 percent). [[Israel \clip\97\28\israel.txt Report: Workforce is 10% foreign Jerusalem Post, Monday, December 1, 1997 \priv\95\14\immisral.txt - Israel expects 70,000 immigratns a year, 2.5 million in history of the state. [[Italy \clip\97\02\italill.txt Italy Nabs Illegal Immigrants By FRANCES D'EMILIO Associated Press Writer Saturday, January 25, 1997 Italy says at least 500,000 illegal immigrants reached its shores last year. About half were allowed to stay. [[malaysia \clip\97\03\illmaid.txt 1-1.5 million illegals in Malaysia est. [[South Africa S AFRICANS KILL SUSPECTED ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS, PREFER WHITE IMMIGRANTS \clip\98\14\safimm.txt October 19, 1998 New York Times New South Africa Shuts the Door on Its Neighbors By SUZANNE DALEY Anti-foreigner attitudes, particularly against blacks, are deep-seated and widespread among all races. And violence against immigrants is growing. Last month, an angry mob killed three foreigners on a commuter train outside Pretoria after accusing them of stealing jobs from South Africans. Two of the victims, both from Senegal, were electrocuted when they climbed onto the roof to escape being lashed with cattle whips. Both black and white South Africans prefer white immigrants, viewing newcomers from Europe and North America more favorably than they do Africans. [[sweden c:\clip\96\02\swedimm.txt By Paul de Bendern STOCKHOLM, Aug 6 (Reuter) - Once the world's haven for refugees, Sweden is toughening up its immigration policies and no longer receiving newcomers with open arms. Today nearly one in eight of the 8.8 million people living in Sweden are immigrants or have at least one immigrant parent. @@x @@yeh, ling ling Chinese immigrant, 47 in 2000, formerly Suzanne Feinberg before 1994, born in Vietnam of Chinese parents. Only leader of anti-immigration who is an immigrant. Seattle Times, KOMO Town Meeting How Much is too much? Asian Week Feb 17, 2000 p. 11 Janet Dang. Wants only 200,000 yr, not 2 mil, only spouse, single children under 18, only einstein grade. [when will they do one on matloff?] YEH YEH LING AGAINST NONEURO IMMIG, CUPERTINO "OVERRUN" BY CHINESE \clip\99\12\euroam.txt The ethnic cleansing of European-Americans By Paul Craig Roberts Washington Times National Weekly Edition, Commentary, June 21-27, 1999 Recent immigrants who favor the melting pot are themselves alarmed. Yeh Ling-Ling, the executive director of Diversity Alliance for a Sustainable America, believes we need a time-out from mass immigration in order to permit assimilation; otherwise, the United States will face ethnic divides that exceed those in Kosovo and the Balkans. [Ling is #2 after Norm Matloff as critic of new Chinese immigration] The formerly all-white community of Cupertino, Calif., has been so overrun by Chinese immigrants that the school board debated a Mandarin-immersion kindergarten class. @@zero population growth d:\clip\96\04\zpg.txt The ZPG Reporter" recently crossed my desk, entitled "More Than Numbers: A ZPG Approach to Immigration." @@end immigration